Communication Skills

A Ranting Hub for Improving Communication Skills

Literary Deliberations for You

64 Comments

Literary Analysis: Using Elements of Literature

Students are asked to write literary analysis essays because this type of assignment encourages you to think about how and why a poem, short story, novel, or play was written.  To successfully analyze literature, you’ll need to remember that authors make specific choices for particular reasons.  Your essay should point out the author’s choices and attempt to explain their significance.

Another way to look at a literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from your own perspective.  Rather than thinking about the author’s intentions, you can develop an argument based on any single term (or combination of terms) listed below.  You’ll just need to use the original text to defend and explain your argument to the reader.

Allegory – narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait (i.e. greed, vanity, or bravery) and attempt to convey some larger lesson or meaning to life. Although allegory was originally and traditionally character based, modern allegories tend to parallel story and theme.

  • William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily- the decline of the Old South
  • Robert Louis Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde- man’s struggle to contain his inner primal instincts
  • District 9- South African Apartheid
  • X Men- the evils of prejudice
  • Harry Potter- the dangers of seeking “racial purity”

Character – representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally human activities or functions in a work of fiction

  • Protagonist – The character the story revolves around.
  • Antagonist – A character or force that opposes the protagonist.
  • Minor character – Often provides support and illuminates the protagonist.
  • Static character – A character that remains the same.
  • Dynamic character – A character that changes in some important way.
  • Characterization – The choices an author makes to reveal a character’s personality, such as appearance, actions, dialogue, and motivations.

Look for: Connections, links, and clues between and about characters. Ask yourself what the function and significance of each character is. Make this determination based upon the character’s history, what the reader is told (and not told), and what other characters say about themselves and others.

Connotation – implied meaning of word. BEWARE! Connotations can change over time.

  • confidence/ arrogance
  • mouse/ rat
  • cautious/ scared
  • curious/ nosey
  • frugal/ cheap

Denotation – dictionary definition of a word

Diction – word choice that both conveys and emphasizes the meaning or theme of a poem through distinctions in sound, look, rhythm, syllable, letters, and definition

Figurative language – the use of words to express meaning beyond the literal meaning of the words themselves

  • Metaphor – contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme without using like or as
    • You are the sunshine of my life.
  • Simile – contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme using like or as
    • What happens to a dream deferred, does it dry up like a raisin in the sun
  • Hyperbole – exaggeration
    • I have a million things to do today.
  • Personification – giving non-human objects human characteristics
    • America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces with the British.

Foot – grouping of stressed and unstressed syllables used in line or poem

  • Iamb – unstressed syllable followed by stressed
    • Made famous by the Shakespearian sonnet, closest to the natural rhythm of human speech
      • How do I love thee? Let me count the ways
  • Spondee – stressed stressed
    • Used to add emphasis and break up monotonous rhythm
      • Blood boil, mind-meld, well- loved
  • Trochee – stressed unstressed
    • Often used in children’s rhymes and to help with memorization, gives poem a hurried feeling
      • While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
  • Anapest – unstressed unstressed stressed
    • Often used in longer poems or “rhymed stories”
      • Twas the night before Christmas and all through the house
  • Dactyls – stressed unstressed unstressed
    • Often used in classical Greek or Latin text, later revived by the Romantics, then again by the Beatles, often thought to create a heartbeat or pulse in a poem
      • Picture yourself in a boat on a river,
        With tangerine trees and marmalade skies.

The iamb stumbles through my books; trochees rush and tumble; while anapest runs like a hurrying brook; dactyls are stately and classical.

Imagery – the author’s attempt to create a mental picture (or reference point) in the mind of the reader. Remember, though the most immediate forms of imagery are visual, strong and effective imagery can be used to invoke an emotional, sensational (taste, touch, smell etc) or even physical response.

Meter – measure or structuring of rhythm in a poem

Plot – the arrangement of ideas and/or incidents that make up a story

  • Foreshadowing – When the writer clues the reader in to something that will eventually occur in the story; it may be explicit (obvious) or implied (disguised).
  • Suspense – The tension that the author uses to create a feeling of discomfort about the unknown
  • Conflict – Struggle between opposing forces.
  • Exposition – Background information regarding the setting, characters, plot.
  • Rising Action – The process the story follows as it builds to its main conflict
  • Crisis – A significant turning point in the story that determines how it must end
  • Resolution/Denouement – The way the story turns out.

Point of View – pertains to who tells the story and how it is told. The point of view of a story can sometimes indirectly establish the author’s intentions.

  • Narrator – The person telling the story who may or may not be a character in the story.
  • First-person – Narrator participates in action but sometimes has limited knowledge/vision.
  • Second person – Narrator addresses the reader directly as though she is part of the story. (i.e. “You walk into your bedroom.  You see clutter everywhere and…”)
  • Third Person (Objective) – Narrator is unnamed/unidentified (a detached observer). Does not assume character’s perspective and is not a character in the story. The narrator reports on events and lets the reader supply the meaning.
  • Omniscient – All-knowing narrator (multiple perspectives). The narrator knows what each character is thinking and feeling, not just what they are doing throughout the story.  This type of narrator usually jumps around within the text, following one character for a few pages or chapters, and then switching to another character for a few pages, chapters, etc. Omniscient narrators also sometimes step out of a particular character’s mind to evaluate him or her in some meaningful way.

Rhythm – often thought of as a poem’s timing. Rhythm is the juxtaposition of stressed and unstressed beats in a poem, and is often used to give the reader a lens through which to move through the work. (See meter and foot)

Setting – the place or location of the action.  The setting provides the historical and cultural context for characters. It often can symbolize the emotional state of characters. Example – In Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher, the crumbling old mansion reflects the decaying state of both the family and the narrator’s mind. We also see this type of emphasis on setting in Thomas Mann’s Death in Venice.

Speaker – the person delivering the poem. Remember, a poem does not have to have a speaker, and the speaker and the poet are not necessarily one in the same.

Structure (fiction) – The way that the writer arranges the plot of a story.

Look for: Repeated elements in action, gesture, dialogue, description, as well as shifts in direction, focus, time, place, etc.

Structure (poetry) – The pattern of organization of a poem. For example, a Shakespearean sonnet is a 14-line poem written in iambic pentameter. Because the sonnet is strictly constrained, it is considered a closed or fixed form. An open or free form poem has looser form, or perhaps one of the author’s invention, but it is important to remember that these poems  are not necessarily formless.

Symbolism – when an object is meant to be representative of something or an idea greater than the object itself.

  • Cross – representative of Christ or Christianity
  • Bald Eagle – America or Patriotism
  • Owl – wisdom or knowledge
  • Yellow – implies cowardice or rot

Tone – the implied attitude towards the subject of the poem. Is it hopeful, pessimistic, dreary, worried? A poet conveys tone by combining all of the elements listed above to create a precise impression on the reader.

https://www.roanestate.edu/owl/ElementsLit.html

Advertisements

64 thoughts on “Literary Deliberations for You

  1. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment

    Name: Ankita Gupta
    Roll No.: 147109
    Class: SYBBA
    Date: 20th March 2016

    INVICTUS: THE UNCONQUERABLE

    About The Author:
    William Ernest Henley (August 23, 1849 – July 11, 1903) was a British poet, critic and editor. He was born in Gloucester and was educated at Crypt Grammar School, where he studied with the poet T.E. Brown, and the University of St. Andrews. His father was a struggling bookseller who died when Henley was a teenager. At age 12 Henley was diagnosed with tubercular arthritis that necessitated the amputation of one of his legs just below the knee; the other foot was saved only through a radical surgery performed by Joseph Lister. As he healed in the infirmary, Henley began to write poems, including “Invictus”, which concludes with the oft-referenced lines “I am the master of my fate; / I am the captain of my soul.” He wrote this poem in 1875 but did not publish it until 1892 in a collection entitled “Echoes”. Henley’s poems often engage themes of inner strength and perseverance. His numerous collections of poetry include A Book of Verses (1888), London Voluntaries (1893), and Hawthorn and Lavender (1899).
    Henley edited the Scots Observer (which later became the National Observer), through which he befriended writer Rudyard Kipling, and the Magazine of Art, in which he lauded the work of emerging artists James McNeill Whistler and Auguste Rodin. Henley was a close friend of Robert Louis Stevenson, who reportedly based his Long John Silver character in Treasure Island in part on Henley.

    Theme-
    The theme of the poem is the will to survive in the face of a severe test. Henley himself faced such a test. After contracting tuberculosis of the bone in his youth, he suffered a tubercular infection when he was in his early twenties that resulted in amputation of a leg below the knee. The poem is all about strength, bravery and perseverance. It is evident here that life will always send you in a different direction than you may have planned, and though people may try, they cannot change you. Probably the most important aspect of “Invictus” is Henley’s agnostic attitude. Unsure of any one particular God, he thanks “whatever gods may be;” that is, if there are any Gods at all. By the end of the poem, it is clear that the existence of any god or gods is purely inconsequential to Henley’s own existence. He is the master of his fate, the captain of his soul. He is the champion of self-reliance, and challenges the notion that man cannot rely upon inner strength alone, that he must have the help of some sort of deity in order to survive in this world. Henley’s feelings towards these experiences were most likely born out of his harrowing hospital experiences, and his powerful triumph over tuberculosis. “Invictus” is the poem of a survivor, and a survivor is exactly what Henley was.

    Tone of the Poem:
    Depending on how the reader interprets the poem Invictus, the tone varies.
    Invictus could be taken as a hopeful poem for those suffering, constantly being reminded that you are the “Captain of your soul” and that it is you choosing to live in pain or be brave when facing a challenge. “Beyond this place of wrath and tears” refers that the writer has hope for the afterlife. “Finds, and shall find, me unafraid” refers to the fearlessness of the writer. “My head is bloody, but unbowed” refers to his courage to fight. The powerful tone in “Invictus” is gloomy and dark although Henley remains optimistic and with the help of the three types of figurative language the dark tone is constantly seen throughout the poem helping readers truly feel the misery the author is going through. William Henley captures all readers with “Invictus” making it easily relatable to the past, present, and future. William Earnest Henley carefully selected elements of speech including metaphors, imagery and personification in is renowned poem, “Invictus”, to relate to the world about overcoming ones hardships and conquering evil.

    Style of the Poem:

    “Invictus” is a lyric poem in four quatrains (four-line stanzas). “Invictus” follows the rhyme scheme: ABAB CDCD EFEF GHGH.

    Poetic Devices:

    The poetic devices used in the poem “Invictus” by William Ernest Henley are metaphors, similes, imager, alliterations and personification.

    Metaphor’s run vividly in every stanza in Henley’s “Invictus. “Out of the night that covers me” is the first metaphor that readers come across in the poem. “Night” represents the feeling of suffering and pain that the author describes throughout his writing. “Night” is the darkest part of the day and therefor Henley compares night to agony. The next usage of a metaphor is found in the third stanza, “Looms but the horror of the shade”. In this line, “shade” signifies an upcoming unexpected event in life. “Shade” is also used to foreshadow the inevitable incidents that create a hardship that one must conquer. The last example of a metaphor is also found in the third stanza, “And yet the menace of the years/ Finds, and shall find, me unafraid”. The term “menace of the years” stands for the coming of age and the author states that he is not scared of the forthcoming years. These lines also help the reader visualize that the author of the poem embodies a character trait of bravery, which relates to another figure of speech, imagery. Readers see a solid use of imagery in the first stanza when Henley opens his poem with a simile in the second line, “Black as the Pit from pole to pole”. The use of this simile is used to display a picture of how dark and gloomy this time was for him and how the severe pain he was feeling could stretch from the North Pole to the South Pole. The next use of imagery is in the second stanza, “My head is bloody, but unbowed”. Here, he is describing his treacherous fate and the physical punishments it has put on him. Although he is in discomfort, the term “unbowed” displays his resilient composure he is capable of maintaining during his time of travail. Opening up the third stanza we see another use of imagery, “Beyond this place of wrath and tears”. Henley portrays a moment of rage and unhappiness. The dark description reveals the authors actual outlook on this certain time in life and wants readers who are dealing with a similar situation to relate. Henley uses personification giving “Night” a human quality in the first line of the poem, “Out of the night that covers me”. Night resembles suffering and the author describes that suffering to be “covering” or taking over, his entire body. The second use of personification in “Invictus” is found in the first line of the second stanza, “In the fell clutch of circumstance”. Henley is comparing the crucial circumstance he is going through to a deadly grip that’s possibly restraining him from preforming at his best. The final example of personification is in the second stanza as well, “Under the bludgeoning’s of chance”. The word “chance” is being given a human characteristic of be able to hit something. Henley is describing his suffering to something instantaneously striking him with the serious pain. In the 2nd and the 8th line, alliteration can be seen.

    Title of the poem-
    “Invictus” is Latin for unconquerable, invincible, undefeated. Henley dedicated the poem to Robert Thomas Hamilton Bruce (1846-1899), a Scottish flour merchant. After Hamilton Bruce’s death, published collections of Henley’s poems often included either of these dedication lines preceding the poem: “I.M.R.T. Hamilton Bruce” or “In Memoriam R.T.H.B.” (“In Memory of Robert Thomas Hamilton Bruce”). As the poem is about strength and bravery, the title is best suited.

    Ending of the Poem:

    The poem ends on a very effective note. The last two lines of the poem show the confidence and the belief that the poet had in himself. These two lines justify the title of the poem that is “Invictus”, as the poet says “I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul” which shows that no one can defeat him.

    As A Short Poem:
    It is a very apt form of poetry. It is a short poem. It has a central theme and a very important idea. It is a widely appreciated poem recited many times by Nelson Mandela. A biopic on Nelson Mandel has also been made with the same name “Invictus” at the end of which he recites this poem.

    Management lessons:
    Hard work and perseverance is the key to success. Never give up. Even if the conditions turn unfavorable, have confidence on yourself and keep trying. Never support unethical and illegal practices even if they profit you. An organization should face the challenges in the market without losing hope and should try hard to beat its competitor and become the king of the market.

    Sources:
    https://sites.google.com/site/camiecantrell/home/final-draft ( 11th march 2016)
    http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides7/Invictus.html (10th march 2016)
    https://invictusexplained.wordpress.com (19th march 2016)
    https://sites.google.com/site/camiecantrell/invictus-by-william-ernest-henley/notes-on-invictus (14th march 2016)

  2. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment
    Name: Samyak sabugola
    Roll No. 147137
    Class: SYBBA
    Date: 21 March, 2016
    Animal Farm (Themes) – by George Orwell

    Major themes in the animal farm
    Satire
    Satire is loosely defined as art that ridicules a specific topic in order to provoke readers into changing their opinion of it. By attacking what they see as human folly, satirists usually imply their own opinions on how the thing being attacked can be remedied. Perhaps the most famous work of British satire is Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726), where the inhabitants of the different lands Gulliver visits embody what Swift saw as the prominent vices and corruptions of his time. As a child, Orwell discovered and devoured Swift’s novel, which became one of his favorite books. Like Gulliver’s Travels, Animal Farm is a satirical novel in which Orwell, like Swift, attacks what he saw as some of the prominent follies of his time. These various satirical targets comprise the major themes of Orwell’s novel.
    Tyrants
    Broadly speaking, animal farm satirizes politicians, specifically their rhetoric, ability to manipulate others, and insatiable lust for power. Despite his seemingly altruistic motives, Napoleon is presented as the epitome of a power-hungry individual who masks all of his actions with the excuse that they are done for the betterment of the farm. His stealing the milk and apples, for example, is explained by the lie that these foods have nutrients essential to pigs, who need these nutrients to carry on their managerial work. His running Snowball off the farm is explained by the lie that Snowball was actually a traitor, working for Jones — and that the farm will fare better without him. Each time that Napoleon and the other pigs wish to break one of the Seven Commandments, they legitimize their transgressions by changing the Commandment’s original language. Whenever the farm suffers a setback, Napoleon blames Snowball’s treachery — which the reader, of course, knows is untrue. Napoleon’s walking on two legs, wearing a derby hat, and toasting Pilkington reflect the degree to which he (and the other pigs) completely disregard the plights of the other animals in favor of satisfying their own cravings for power. Thus, the dominant theme of Animal Farm is the tendency for those who espouse the most virtuous ideas to become the worst enemies of the people whose lives they are claiming to improve.
    Role of the Populace
    Orwell, however, does not imply that Napoleon is the only cause for Animal Farm’s decline. He also satirizes the different kinds of people whose attitudes allow rulers like Napoleon to succeed. Mollie, whose only concerns are materialistic, is like people who are so self-centered that they lack any political sense or understanding of what is happening around them. Apolitical people like Mollie — who care nothing for justice or equality — offer no resistance to tyrants like Napoleon. Boxer is likened to the kind of blindly devoted citizen whose reliance on slogans (“Napoleon is always right”) prevents him from examining in more detail his own situation: Although Boxer is a sympathetic character, his ignorance is almost infuriating, and Orwell suggests that this unquestioning ignorance allows rulers like Napoleon to grow stronger. Even Benjamin, the donkey, contributes to Napoleon’s rise, because his only stand on what is occurring is a cynical dismissal of the facts: Although he is correct in stating that “Life would go on as it had always gone on — that is, badly,” he, too, does nothing to stop the pigs’ ascension or even raise the other animals’ awareness of what is happening. His only action is to warn Boxer of his impending death at the knacker’s — but this is futile as it occurs too late to do Boxer any good.
    Religion and Tyranny
    Another theme of Orwell’s novel that also strikes a satiric note is the idea of religion being the “opium of the people” (as Karl Marx famously wrote). Moses the raven’s talk of Sugar candy Mountain originally annoys many of the animals, since Moses, known as a “teller of tales,” seems an unreliable source. At this point, the animals are still hopeful for a better future and therefore dismiss Moses’ stories of a paradise elsewhere. As their lives worsen, however, the animals begin to believe him, because “Their lives now, they reasoned, were hungry and laborious; Was it not right and just that a better world should exist somewhere else?” Here, Orwell mocks the futile dreaming of a better place that clearly does not exist. The pigs allow Moses to stay on the farm — and even encourage his presence by rewarding him with beer — because they know that his stories of Sugar candy Mountain will keep the animals docile: As long as there is some better world somewhere — even after death — the animals will trudge through this one. Thus Orwell implies that religious devotion — viewed by many as a noble character trait — can actually distort the ways in which one thinks of his or her life on earth.
    False Allegiance
    A final noteworthy (and again, satiric) theme is the way in which people proclaim their allegiance to each other, only to betray their true intentions at a later time. Directly related to the idea that the rulers of the rebellion (the pigs) eventually betray the ideals for which they presumably fought, this theme is dramatized in a number of relationships involving the novel’s human characters. Pilkington and Jones; Frederick, for example, only listen to Jones in the Red Lion because they secretly hope to gain something from their neighbor’s misery. Similarly, Frederick’s buying the firewood from Napoleon seems to form an alliance that is shattered when the pig learns of Frederick’s forged banknotes. The novel’s final scene demonstrates that, despite all the friendly talk and flattery that passes between Pilkington and Napoleon, each is still trying to cheat the other (as seen when both play the ace of spades simultaneously). Of course, only one of the two is technically cheating, but Orwell does not indicate which one because such a fact is unimportant: The “friendly” game of cards is a facade that hides each ruler’s desire to destroy the other.
    Thus, as Swift used fantastic places to explore the themes of political corruption in the eighteenth century, so Orwell does with his own fantastic setting to satirize the twentieth. According to Orwell, rulers such as Napoleon will continue to grow in number — and in power — unless people become more politically aware and more wary of these leader’s “noble” ideals.

  3. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment

    Name: Pooja Dholakia
    Roll No. 147130
    Class: SYBBA
    Date: 23/02/2016

    The assignment topic assigned was “Character Analysis of Antonio” from the Shakespearean play – “The Merchant of Venice”
    Antonio is the main character in the play (the Hero of the play) around whom the entire plot revolves.

    He is portrayed as a rather submissive, loyal, just and friendly person who can bear evenly the consequences of the misdeeds his friend may have done on his behalf.

    Antonio is a rich man, and a comfortable man, and a popular man, but still he suffers from an inner sadness. One of Antonio’s most distinguishing characteristics is his generosity. He is more than happy to offer his good credit standing so that Bassanio can go to Belmont in the latest fashions in order to court Portia and is ready to accept the consequences whatsoever.

    He has borrowed a loan from Shylock – a Jewish moneylender, for Bassanio. But Shylock just agreed to progress the loan of his was because he wanted to seek revenge from Antonio.

    And the reasons why Shylock hates Antonio so intensely are that
    (i) Antonio has received Shylock’s borrowers by lending them money at the last minute to pay off Shylock; and Antonio never charges interest
    (ii) He is a Christian.
    Antonio is only too happy to help his friends, but he would never stoop to accepting more than the original amount in return. Antonio’s generosity is boundless, and for Bassanio, he is willing to go to the full length of friendship, even if it means that he himself may suffer for it.
    The Development of Antonio’s character is a rather lame one. Antonio’s is a character around which the entire plot of the play revolves. He is the merchant of venice who is very loyal to his friend Bassanio and for the betterment of his, he in turn borrows a loan from a Jewish moneylender Shylock and Antonio on his failure to repay it abides to give a pound of his flesh as Shylock pleases.
    As the tenure of repayment of loan comes to its end, Shylock comes to know of the mishap that occurred with Antonio and that all his ships had been wrecked. Shylock was only too pleased to know that, as now he knew nothing could stop his vengeance from being acted upon.

    The Character Progression of Antonio is as described below:
    As the play opens, it portrays Antonio in a melancholic state, where the reason to his sadness is indefinite and then it progresses to a confused state where he has lost all his cargo ships and so will he fail to repay his dues to Shylock.
    And then his character turns to a submissive and loyal state where he agrees to do anything for his friend Bassanio.

    Character Traits
    Antonio’s is a character that is portrayed as
    1. Friendly – Friendly enough to succumb to all the beats and thrashes he may suffer for anybody
    2. Loyal – His loyalty is proved when he, post knowing the effects of breaking a bond with Shylock agrees to lend his money to Bassanio by borrowing a loan from Shylock
    3. Dependable – Because He never breaks trust his friend has in him. He can go to any extent to save his friendship and do the right deeds to and with his friends
    4. A Man of his words- Antonio does not deny to surrender to the harsh consequences that were imposed upon him due to his failure to repay the loans. Instead, he insisted on getting the punishment as it was according to the bond signed.

    As a Shakepeare Hero
    Although the play’s title refers to him, Antonio is a rather lackluster character. He emerges in Act I, scene I as a hopeless depressive, someone who cannot name the source of his melancholy and who, throughout the course of the play, devolves into a self-pitying lump, unable to muster the energy required to defend himself against execution. Antonio never names the cause of his melancholy, but the evidence seems to point to his being in love, despite his denial of this idea . The most likely object of his affection is Bassanio, who takes full advantage of the merchant’s boundless feelings for him. Antonio has risked the entirety of his fortune on overseas trading ventures, yet he agrees to guarantee the potentially lethal loan Bassanio secures from Shylock.
    In the context of his unrequited and presumably unconsummated relationship with Bassanio, Antonio’s willingness to offer up a pound of his own flesh seems particularly important, signifying a union that grotesquely alludes to the rites of marriage, where two partners become “one flesh.”
    Thereby we come to know that thought Antonio is referred to as the main part of this play, but he is portrayed as a rather fragile, emotional and loyal friend who can impractically too move beyond the extent of practical appliances of exercising liberalities in ones’ life.
    Thank You

  4. (147141)
    SYBBA, IMNU

    George Orwell as a Satirist in Animal Farm

    Animal Farm by George Orwell, is considered to be one of the finest and most misunderstood satires of all time. Many critiques ended up in an illusion of Animal Farm being a light-hearted fable as the plot managed to bring in subtle humor and irony, every now and then.

    For Instance, the changes in “7 Laws of Animalism”, like “No animal shall drink alcohol” becoming “No animal shall drink alcohol to excess”, “No animal shall kill another animal” becoming “No animal shall kill another animal without purpose” and so on. One has to look through the fact, that even after the surfacing humor, Animal Farm somewhere is a sadist’s description of the Russian Revolution.

    Some critiques even mistook Animal Farm as a sheer contributor to children literature because of it being a fable and being able to teach some morale. In reality, Animal Farm is for a larger audience who can look through the layer of animals portraying humans who take control, whilst proving Lord Acton’s thesis, “Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely.”

    To comprehend the true origins of this classic, one has to look through the author’s very own perspective. Orwell, is known to use a perception which is not crystal clear but has colors of irony, paradox, cynicism and satire interknit to form a unique story-telling methodology. That is prevalent in his earlier works too, as mentioned by Stephen J. Greenblatt in Orwell As A Satirist.

    As one looks deeper into the author’s life, it can be observed that Orwell was a firm believer of Democratic Socialism throughout his life. For him, the ideal condition of the world would be a socialist society where there are plenty of resources for everyone to count upon, people use common sense as an outlook towards life, and the populace is devoid of greed. To him, the entire planet should be a floating ship of resources for everyone, where everyone would work in harmony for peace and wellbeing. This school of thought was too naïve, and idealist to ever surface the reality.

    The storyline of Animal Farm traces itself back to Orwell’s last years, as he saw his entire belief system crush to ground and break into pieces, as the Russian Revolution and Soviet-Nazi agreement devastated the entire populace of the Soviet Union, followed by brutal dictatorship of Stalin and the bloodshed which he made the people go through.

    The characters hold such a close resemblance to real life that it becomes nothing but obvious to see the bridge Orwell has built to point out his severe grief and disappointment at the Russian Revolution. Starting with Major, the old boar who was respected by everyone and the one who initiated the rebel against Mr. Jones, is a clear portrayal of Karl Marx, the father of Communism (as Major somewhere initiates the so-called ‘Animalism’), followed by a patriot who believes in welfare of the common, but faces political opposition by his own fellowmen, is imbibed in Snowball who is portraying Soviet expatriate Leon Trotsky, and finally coming down to a brutal, savage and power-lusting ruler who would reach any heights to crush his opposition, characterized into Napoleon who is a clear resemblance of Joseph Stalin. Resembling the reality where Stalin had sent Trotsky on an exile, Napoleon manages to brush away Snowball.

    The rise of Napoleon to power, is a replica of how Stalin came to power. Following this, are Boxer and Benjamin who represent the Laborious and Aging populace of Russia. These are the people, who invested their trust in the Russian Revolution, thinking that they will be better off in the future. But, to their severe disappointment, they ended up in the very struggle they were trying to run away from. In Animal Farm too, the animal’s see their own people turn upon them as they are immersed in power and greed. Boxer, earlier was told that under that in the existing conditions at the farm, he would be sent off once his potential to work is lost, and ironically that was exactly what was done after the so-called ‘reforms’.

    The Satirical Instances
    To look deeper into Animal Farm and form an analogy with the Russia during the Russian Revolution, one should know the prevailing condition of Russians in those days. The food was scarce, and it was the labor whose hard-work was running the economy of the country. The powerful leadership who was earlier looking like the ‘elected ones’ soon became power hungry and lethal towards their very own populace. Similar to these instances, the food becomes scarce at animal farm and the consumption is brought down by having only one day in a week for eating. Bringing up similar instances, the characters of Benjamin and Boxer are drawn.

    Boxer, who was the physically strongest of all, would work harder than other animals in construction of the Windmill. He would be accompanied by Benjamin, who was as intelligent as the pigs, if not more. Here, Boxer represented the labor class of Russia who was the fundamental of the Russian economy. They were the ones running the economy and making things work on the instructions of their ‘leaders’. Whereas Benjamin represents the old, cynical and skeptical populace of Russia who didn’t exactly believe in Communism, but stayed there anyhow. The roots of the name ‘Benjamin’, trace back to Jewish origins which might imply to the worsened conditions of the Jewish during Stalin’s rule. What’s noteworthy is, that Benjamin is the oldest animal left at the end, which clearly shows the aged populace of Russia which was still left after the pathetic glow of Russian Revolution ended.

    The Mistaken Casual Tone
    Some other critiques, like Orwell’s biographer Laurence Brander have popularized Animal Farm as the most light-hearted and gaiety work of George Orwell. Believing in this outlook, one might completely miss upon the true essence of the satire drawn by Orwell.

    To prove this, one may take upon all the instances which seem to generate humor. The point where those opposing Napoleon are called out may create humor because of its light tone, is actually followed by their execution done by the guarding dogs, who symbolize the Police in the days of Russian Revolution. Napoleon takes up the puppies and trains them for his own interests as they will grow into his private party of comrades and guards. The animals who start coming from other farms and join hands with the Napoleonic leadership in Animal Farm, are representing the Nazis.

    Following this, is also a connotation that Orwell was fond of animals, and that is the central idea behind Animal Farm. To check for this, one should look at the qualities possessed by these animals, as their characters develop in the plot. As and when the story progresses, Orwell adds more humanistic characteristics to his animalistic characters. The animals used here, are not to create humor or to maintain a casual tone of light-heartedness or a representation of Orwell’s gaiety, but are simple deceptions used to convey the harder message of a political satire and a bitter, cynical outlook on the society, covered in humor and entertaining instances.

    Concluding Remarks
    All in all, Animal Farm is George Orwell’s take on the Russian Revolution, making it a political satire. The various instruments used in the storyline, like irony, paradox, cynicism and satire, generate humor on the base of very gruesome and hard-hitting instances. The biggest irony in the plot is the prevailing condition of the farm, which worsens from the one the animals had protested against.

  5. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment

    Name- Vanisha Shevkani
    Roll no- 147164
    Class- SYBBA
    Date- 21 March, 2016

    Summary and Literary Analysis of Animal Farm (Chapter-10)
    Summary of chapter 10: Animal Farm- Several Years On
    The years pass and the Animal Farm then undergo its final changes. Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher they are all dead and Jones dies in an inebriate’s home. Clover is 14 years old now but he did not retire. There are more animals on the farm and also the boundaries of the farm have increased and this is because of the purchase of the two of Pilkington’s fields. All the animals they continue their life of hard work and little of the food, except for the pigs. The second windmill has been completed and is then used for milling corn.
    One evening, Clover sees a shocking sight: Squealer walking on his hind legs and the other pigs follow, walking the same way and Napoleon emerges from the farmhouse carrying a whip in his trotter.
    The sheep begin to bleat a new version of their previous slogan: “Four legs good, two legs better!”. Clover notices that the wall on which the Seven Commandments were written has been repainted: Now, the wall reads, “ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL / BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS.” Eventually, all the pigs they begin carrying whips and wearing Jones’s clothes.
    In the first scene, a deputation of the neighbouring farmers is given a tour of the farm, after which they meet in the dining room of the farmhouse with Napoleon and the other pigs. Mr.Pilkington makes a toast to Animal Farm and its efficiency. He then offers a speech in which he outlines his new policies: The word “comrade” will be supressed, there will be no more Sunday meetings, the skull of the old Major has been buried, and the farm flag will be changed to a simple field of green. His greatest change in policy, however is that Animal farm will again be called Manor Farm.
    Soon after the speech, the men and the pigs they began playing cards but a loud quarrel erupts when both Napoleon and Pilkington each of them try to play the ace of spades. As Clover and the other animals watch the arguments through the dining room window, they are unable to discriminate between the humans and the pigs.
    Literary Analysis
    This chapter, is basically the conclusion of Animal Farm. Most of the animals that were present at the Rebellion are dead. The windmill if finally completed and a second windmill is under construction. The animals still work hard, with Napoleon convincing them that the key to true happiness is working hard and living frugally. The animals are proud that Animal Farm is still the only Farm owned and operated by animals in England. However, Napoleon and the pigs soon began living like humans.
    Eventually, it dawned upon the animals that animal farm was still run by a dictator. Napoleon and the pigs stood up on two legs just like humans. All the commandments were changed into one single one. All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. The animals are quite sure that everything was pretty much the same as before Mr Jones was overthrown from power. The animals are also confused about whether pigs or humans should be in power, as the pigs have adopted the human vices. Eventually, the animals turn upset over how things are about the same as when Mr Jones was in power.
    The characters analysis includes Napoleon; he is the dictator of the farm. He is the leader of the farm and is probably also the one who dictated the pigs to change the Seven Commandments and in the end, walk and act like humans. He deceived the animals into believing that he was a good leader, by using Squealer as his ‘speaker’. Benjamin and Clover are the only animals who have survived from the Rebellion and do not benefit from the current state of Animalism. They are extremely sure that the Commandments have changed a fair bit since the Rebellion. They are also quite depressed over how the spirit of animalism has gradually reversed. What Old Major had envisioned was now impossible. Squealer, is like the broadcaster of Napoleon; he helps Napoleon convince the animals on the farm and makes a lot of speeches. His speeches are considered as a type of propaganda. Squealer is also treated well and given lots of food and water or milk, since he is also a pig himself.

  6. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment Template

    Name: Rovan Narsinghani
    Roll no: 147124
    Class SYBBA
    Date: 21 March, 2016

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR
    R.K. Narayan, in full Raipuram Krishnaswami Narayan was born on October 10, 1906 in the City of Madras (now Chennai). He was one of the greatest Indian authors of his generation who wrote in English.
    Reared by his grandmother, Narayan completed his education in 1930 and briefly worked as a teacher before deciding to devote himself to writing. His first novel, Swami and Friends (1935), is an episodic narrative recounting the adventures of a group of schoolboys. That book and much of Narayan’s later works are set in the fictitious South Indian town of Malgudi. Narayan typically portrays the peculiarities of human relationships and the ironies of Indian daily life, in which modern urban existence clashes with ancient tradition. His style is graceful, marked by genial humour, elegance, and simplicity.
    Among the best-received of Narayan’s 34 novels are The English Teacher (1945), Waiting for the Mahatma (1955), The Guide (1958), The Man-Eater of Malgudi (1961), The Vendor of Sweets (1967), and A Tiger for Malgudi (1983). Narayan also wrote a number of short stories; collections include Lawley Road (1956), A Horse and Two Goats and Other Stories (1970), Under the Banyan Tree and Other Stories (1985), and The Grandmother’s Tale (1993). In addition to works of nonfiction (chiefly memoirs), he also published shortened modern prose versions of two Indian epics, The Ramayana (1972) and The Mahabharata (1978).
    R.K. Narayan won numerous awards and honors for his works. These include: Sahitya Akademi Award for The Guide in 1958; Padma Bhushan in 1964; and AC Benson Medal by the Royal Society of Literature in 1980; R.K. Narayan was elected an honorary member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1982. He was nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 1989. Besides, he was also conferred honorary doctorates by the University of Mysore, Delhi University and the University of Leeds.

    THEME OF THE STORY
    The short “Out of Business” is about a person who has lost his job and is in a financial crisis. It is about all the hard work he does to keep his family in comfort. Story. This story is also about hope. Rama Rao had lost his job and had to shift from a bungalow to a very small house. He even lost all the crossword puzzle competitions that he desperately wanted to win and was about to end his life. But then, on reaching home his wife told him that the tenants wanted to buy their house and were offering a good amount of money and that made him very happy. This shows that one should always be hopeful that good will eventually happen, no matter what has taken place.

    SETTING
    The place or the time is not mentioned in the story, but Rama Rao being the Malgudi Agent suggests that this story too, like other stories of R.K. Narayan is also based in the fictitious town of Malgudi In the South of India.

    PLOT
    THE BEGINNING
    The story begins with the collapse of the Lahore bank due to the death of the financer from Bombay. Due to the collapse of the bank, even the gramophone company of which Rama Rao was the Malgudi Agent, perished. Rama Rao, who earned just enough money to keep his family in good comfort was now jobless.

    RISING ACTION
    The action rises when Rama Rao is forced to shift from his bungalow to a small house. He tries very hard but still is unable to find a job for himself. It was in this condition that he came across a journal named ‘The captain’ that were full of crosswords and offered the winner a sum of four thousand rupees. He now spent his entire day working on crosswords hoping to win the prize money. But even after trying very hard, he could not win it. One day, the journal announced a special offer of rupees eight thousand which raised the excitement of Ram Rao tenfold. This time even after sending four entries, he did not win the competition.

    CLIMAX
    After losing another crossword, Rama Rao was so shattered that he did not go back to his home. Instead he went to the railway Station and decided to end his life on the railway track. He waited there for a long time lying on the track, but the train did not come. He got bores and walked back to the station where he came to know that a goods train had derailed three stations off and the way was blocked. Here, Rama Rao changed his mind and ran back home to find his wife waiting for him at the door. He thanked god for showing him mercy.

    FALLING ACTION
    After returning home, Rama Rao sat down to eat and that is when his wife tells him that the tenants at their Extension bungalow wanted to purchase their house and were ready to offer a good amount. He quickly agreed to this. He thought that they could get four and a half thousand for it. Out of which he would take the half thousand and go to Madras to see if he could do anything useful there and her wife would keep the balance to run the house. His wife asked him if he was going to spend the five hundred bucks for crossword again to which he replied, “No, no. Never again”.

    CHARACTER ANALYSIS
    There are only two major characters in i.e. Rama Rao and his wife
    Rama Rao: He was a man approaching forty who had recently lost his job. He was a very straight forward in his approach. This nature of his is visible when he is looking for a job and is very clear in stating his request. He also had a high risk appetite. He was willing to spend money a good amount of money for the crosswords in order to win the Prize.

    Rama’s wife: Rama’s wife was the kind of person who was ready to adjust with the situation. When Rama lost his job, she sent away the cook and the servant, withdrew the children from a fashionable nursery school to save their expenses. Also she was of mild disposition and incapable of a sustained quarrel. She generally used to give in to the demands of his husband even after knowing that he was wrong.

    STYLE OF WRITING
    The story has been written in the form of third person narrative as the narrator is nowhere mentioned in the story. The language used in the short story is very plain and easy to understand. Also, the story is a predictable one. However, the ending of the story is a bit ordinary.

    TITLE OF THE STORY
    The title of this short story is very appropriate. The story begins with the central character losing his job/ business. It is after that all the series of incidents happen. Rama Rao going out of business was the starting point of all the action, so the title is an apt one.

    BUSINESS LESSONS
    • Always have a backup plan.
    • Carefully assess the risk and return before taking a decision.
    • Be optimistic. Have faith that things will eventually work out

    REFRENCES
    • . http://www.britannica.com/biography/R-K-Narayan
    http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/rk-narayan.html

  7. ELT–Group Assignment
    Class: SYBBA
    Date: March 1,2016
    Roll Nos. Names of group members
    1 4 7 1 2 8 Parshwa Parikh
    1 4 7 1 2 9 Parth Chawda
    1 4 7 1 6 2 Viral Vora
    1 4 7 1 6 3 Nancy Rastogi

    SECTION A : THE ACTUAL EXCERPT OF SCRIPT

    I.
    Without, the night was cold and wet, but in the small parlour of Laburnam Villa the blinds were drawn and the fire burned brightly. Father and son were at chess, the former, who possessed ideas about the game involving radical changes, putting his king into such sharp and unnecessary perils that it even provoked comment from the white-haired old lady knitting placidly by the fire.
    “Hark at the wind,” said Mr. White, who, having seen a fatal mistake after it was too late, was amiably desirous of preventing his son from seeing it.
    “I’m listening,” said the latter, grimly surveying the board as he stretched out his hand. “Check.”
    “I should hardly think that he’d come to-night,” said his father, with his hand poised over the board.
    “Mate,” replied the son.
    “That’s the worst of living so far out,” bawled Mr. White, with sudden and unlooked-for violence; “of all the beastly, slushy, out-of-the-way places to live in, this is the worst. Pathway’s a bog, and the road’s a torrent. I don’t know what people are thinking about. I suppose because only two houses in the road are let, they think it doesn’t matter.”
    “Never mind, dear,” said his wife, soothingly; “perhaps you’ll win the next one.”
    Mr. White looked up sharply, just in time to intercept a knowing glance between mother and son. The words died away on his lips, and he hid a guilty grin in his thin grey beard.
    “There he is,” said Herbert White, as the gate banged to loudly and heavy footsteps came toward the door.
    The old man rose with hospitable haste, and opening the door, was heard condoling with the new arrival. The new arrival also condoled with himself, so that Mrs. White said, “Tut, tut!” and coughed gently as her husband entered the room, followed by a tall, burly man, beady of eye and rubicund of visage.
    “Sergeant-Major Morris,” he said, introducing him.
    The sergeant-major shook hands, and taking the proffered seat by the fire, watched contentedly while his host got out whiskey and tumblers and stood a small copper kettle on the fire.
    At the third glass his eyes got brighter, and he began to talk, the little family circle regarding with eager interest this visitor from distant parts, as he squared his broad shoulders in the chair and spoke of wild scenes and doughty deeds; of wars and plagues and strange peoples.
    “Twenty-one years of it,” said Mr. White, nodding at his wife and son. “When he went away he was a slip of a youth in the warehouse. Now look at him.”
    “He don’t look to have taken much harm,” said Mrs. White, politely.
    “I’d like to go to India myself,” said the old man, “just to look round a bit, you know.”
    “Better where you are,” said the sergeant-major, shaking his head. He put down the empty glass, and sighing softly, shook it again.
    “I should like to see those old temples and fakirs and jugglers,” said the old man. “What was that you started telling me the other day about a monkey’s paw or something, Morris?”
    “Nothing,” said the soldier, hastily. “Leastways nothing worth hearing.”
    “Monkey’s paw?” said Mrs. White, curiously.
    “Well, it’s just a bit of what you might call magic, perhaps,” said the sergeant-major, offhandedly.
    His three listeners leaned forward eagerly. The visitor absent-mindedly put his empty glass to his lips and then set it down again. His host filled it for him.
    “To look at,” said the sergeant-major, fumbling in his pocket, “it’s just an ordinary little paw, dried to a mummy.”
    He took something out of his pocket and proffered it. Mrs. White drew back with a grimace, but her son, taking it, examined it curiously.
    “And what is there special about it?” inquired Mr. White as he took it from his son, and having examined it, placed it upon the table.
    “It had a spell put on it by an old fakir,” said the sergeant-major, “a very holy man. He wanted to show that fate ruled people’s lives, and that those who interfered with it did so to their sorrow. He put a spell on it so that three separate men could each have three wishes from it.”
    His manner was so impressive that his hearers were conscious that their light laughter jarred somewhat.
    “Well, why don’t you have three, sir?” said Herbert White, cleverly.
    The soldier regarded him in the way that middle age is wont to regard presumptuous youth. “I have,” he said, quietly, and his blotchy face whitened.
    “And did you really have the three wishes granted?” asked Mrs. White.
    “I did,” said the sergeant-major, and his glass tapped against his strong teeth.
    “And has anybody else wished?” persisted the old lady.
    “The first man had his three wishes. Yes,” was the reply; “I don’t know what the first two were, but the third was for death. That’s how I got the paw.”
    His tones were so grave that a hush fell upon the group.
    “If you’ve had your three wishes, it’s no good to you now, then, Morris,” said the old man at last. “What do you keep it for?”
    The soldier shook his head. “Fancy, I suppose,” he said, slowly. “I did have some idea of selling it, but I don’t think I will. It has caused enough mischief already. Besides, people won’t buy. They think it’s a fairy tale; some of them, and those who do think anything of it want to try it first and pay me afterward.”
    “If you could have another three wishes,” said the old man, eyeing him keenly, “would you have them?”
    “I don’t know,” said the other. “I don’t know.”
    He took the paw, and dangling it between his forefinger and thumb, suddenly threw it upon the fire. White, with a slight cry, stooped down and snatched it off.
    “Better let it burn,” said the soldier, solemnly.
    “If you don’t want it, Morris,” said the other, “give it to me.”
    “I won’t,” said his friend, doggedly. “I threw it on the fire. If you keep it, don’t blame me for what happens. Pitch it on the fire again like a sensible man.”
    The other shook his head and examined his new possession closely. “How do you do it?” he inquired.
    “Hold it up in your right hand and wish aloud,” said the sergeant-major, “but I warn you of the consequences.”
    “Sounds like the Arabian Nights,” said Mrs. White, as she rose and began to set the supper. “Don’t you think you might wish for four pairs of hands for me?”
    Her husband drew the talisman from pocket, and then all three burst into laughter as the sergeant-major, with a look of alarm on his face, caught him by the arm.
    “If you must wish,” he said, gruffly, “wish for something sensible.”
    Mr. White dropped it back in his pocket, and placing chairs, motioned his friend to the table. In the business of supper the talisman was partly forgotten, and afterward the three sat listening in an enthralled fashion to a second instalment of the soldier’s adventures in India.
    “If the tale about the monkey’s paw is not more truthful than those he has been telling us,” said Herbert, as the door closed behind their guest, just in time for him to catch the last train, “we sha’nt make much out of it.”
    “Did you give him anything for it, father?” inquired Mrs. White, regarding her husband closely.
    “A trifle,” said he, colouring slightly. “He didn’t want it, but I made him take it. And he pressed me again to throw it away.”
    “Likely,” said Herbert, with pretended horror. “Why, we’re going to be rich, and famous and happy. Wish to be an emperor, father, to begin with; then you can’t be henpecked.”
    He darted round the table, pursued by the maligned Mrs. White armed with an antimacassar.
    Mr. White took the paw from his pocket and eyed it dubiously. “I don’t know what to wish for, and that’s a fact,” he said, slowly. “It seems to me I’ve got all I want.”
    “If you only cleared the house, you’d be quite happy, wouldn’t you?” said Herbert, with his hand on his shoulder. “Well, wish for two hundred pounds, then; that ‘ll just do it.”
    His father, smiling shamefacedly at his own credulity, held up the talisman, as his son, with a solemn face, somewhat marred by a wink at his mother, sat down at the piano and struck a few impressive chords.
    “I wish for two hundred pounds,” said the old man distinctly.
    A fine crash from the piano greeted the words, interrupted by a shuddering cry from the old man. His wife and son ran toward him.
    “It moved,” he cried, with a glance of disgust at the object as it lay on the floor.
    “As I wished, it twisted in my hand like a snake.”
    “Well, I don’t see the money,” said his son as he picked it up and placed it on the table, “and I bet I never shall.”
    “It must have been your fancy, father,” said his wife, regarding him anxiously.
    He shook his head. “Never mind, though; there’s no harm done, but it gave me a shock all the same.”
    They sat down by the fire again while the two men finished their pipes. Outside, the wind was higher than ever, and the old man started nervously at the sound of a door banging upstairs. A silence unusual and depressing settled upon all three, which lasted until the old couple rose to retire for the night.
    “I expect you’ll find the cash tied up in a big bag in the middle of your bed,” said Herbert, as he bade them good-night, “and something horrible squatting up on top of the wardrobe watching you as you pocket your ill-gotten gains.”
    He sat alone in the darkness, gazing at the dying fire, and seeing faces in it. The last face was so horrible and so simian that he gazed at it in amazement. It got so vivid that, with a little uneasy laugh, he felt on the table for a glass containing a little water to throw over it. His hand grasped the monkey’s paw, and with a little shiver he wiped his hand on his coat and went up to bed.

    II.
    In the brightness of the wintry sun next morning as it streamed over the breakfast table he laughed at his fears. There was an air of prosaic wholesomeness about the room which it had lacked on the previous night, and the dirty, shrivelled little paw was pitched on the sideboard with a carelessness which betokened no great belief in its virtues.
    “I suppose all old soldiers are the same,” said Mrs. White. “The idea of our listening to such nonsense! How could wishes be granted in these days? And if they could, how could two hundred pounds hurt you, father?”
    “Might drop on his head from the sky,” said the frivolous Herbert.
    “Morris said the things happened so naturally,” said his father, “that you might if you so wished attribute it to coincidence.”
    “Well, don’t break into the money before I come back,” said Herbert as he rose from the table. “I’m afraid it’ll turn you into a mean, avaricious man, and we shall have to disown you.”
    His mother laughed, and following him to the door, watched him down the road; and returning to the breakfast table, was very happy at the expense of her husband’s credulity. All of which did not prevent her from scurrying to the door at the postman’s knock, nor prevent her from referring somewhat shortly to retired sergeant-majors of bibulous habits when she found that the post brought a tailor’s bill.
    “Herbert will have some more of his funny remarks, I expect, when he comes home,” she said, as they sat at dinner.
    “I dare say,” said Mr. White, pouring himself out some beer; “but for all that, the thing moved in my hand; that I’ll swear to.”
    “You thought it did,” said the old lady soothingly.
    “I say it did,” replied the other. “There was no thought about it; I had just—- What’s the matter?”
    His wife made no reply. She was watching the mysterious movements of a man outside, who, peering in an undecided fashion at the house, appeared to be trying to make up his mind to enter. In mental connection with the two hundred pounds, she noticed that the stranger was well dressed, and wore a silk hat of glossy newness. Three times he paused at the gate, and then walked on again. The fourth time he stood with his hand upon it, and then with sudden resolution flung it open and walked up the path. Mrs. White at the same moment placed her hands behind her, and hurriedly unfastening the strings of her apron, put that useful article of apparel beneath the cushion of her chair.
    She brought the stranger, who seemed ill at ease, into the room. He gazed at her furtively, and listened in a preoccupied fashion as the old lady apologized for the appearance of the room, and her husband’s coat, a garment which he usually reserved for the garden. She then waited as patiently as her sex would permit, for him to broach his business, but he was at first strangely silent.
    “I—was asked to call,” he said at last, and stooped and picked a piece of cotton from his trousers. “I come from ‘Maw and Meggins.'”
    The old lady started. “Is anything the matter?” she asked, breathlessly. “Has anything happened to Herbert? What is it? What is it?”
    Her husband interposed. “There, there, mother,” he said, hastily. “Sit down, and don’t jump to conclusions. You’ve not brought bad news, I’m sure, sir;” and he eyed the other wistfully.
    “I’m sorry—” began the visitor.
    “Is he hurt?” demanded the mother, wildly.
    The visitor bowed in assent. “Badly hurt,” he said, quietly, “but he is not in any pain.”
    “Oh, thank God!” said the old woman, clasping her hands. “Thank God for that! Thank—”
    She broke off suddenly as the sinister meaning of the assurance dawned upon her and she saw the awful confirmation of her fears in the other’s averted face. She caught her breath, and turning to her slower-witted husband, laid her trembling old hand upon his. There was a long silence.
    “He was caught in the machinery,” said the visitor at length in a low voice.
    “Caught in the machinery,” repeated Mr. White, in a dazed fashion, “yes.”
    He sat staring blankly out at the window, and taking his wife’s hand between his own, pressed it as he had been wont to do in their old courting-days nearly forty years before.
    “He was the only one left to us,” he said, turning gently to the visitor. “It is hard.”
    The other coughed, and rising, walked slowly to the window. “The firm wished me to convey their sincere sympathy with you in your great loss,” he said, without looking round. “I beg that you will understand I am only their servant and merely obeying orders.”
    There was no reply; the old woman’s face was white, her eyes staring, and her breath inaudible; on the husband’s face was a look such as his friend the sergeant might have carried into his first action.
    “I was to say that ‘Maw and Meggins’ disclaim all responsibility,” continued the other. “They admit no liability at all, but in consideration of your son’s services, they wish to present you with a certain sum as compensation.”
    Mr. White dropped his wife’s hand, and rising to his feet, gazed with a look of horror at his visitor. His dry lips shaped the words, “How much?”
    “Two hundred pounds,” was the answer.
    Unconscious of his wife’s shriek, the old man smiled faintly, put out his hands like a sightless man, and dropped, a senseless heap, to the floor.

    III.
    In the huge new cemetery, some two miles distant, the old people buried their dead, and came back to a house steeped in shadow and silence. It was all over so quickly that at first they could hardly realize it, and remained in a state of expectation as though of something else to happen —something else which was to lighten this load, too heavy for old hearts to bear.
    But the days passed, and expectation gave place to resignation—the hopeless resignation of the old, sometimes miscalled, apathy. Sometimes they hardly exchanged a word, for now they had nothing to talk about, and their days were long to weariness.
    It was about a week after that the old man, waking suddenly in the night, stretched out his hand and found himself alone. The room was in darkness, and the sound of subdued weeping came from the window. He raised himself in bed and listened.
    “Come back,” he said, tenderly. “You will be cold.”
    “It is colder for my son,” said the old woman, and wept afresh.
    The sound of her sobs died away on his ears. The bed was warm, and his eyes heavy with sleep. He dozed fitfully, and then slept until a sudden wild cry from his wife awoke him with a start.
    “The paw!” she cried wildly. “The monkey’s paw!”
    He started up in alarm. “Where? Where is it? What’s the matter?”
    She came stumbling across the room toward him. “I want it,” she said, quietly. “You’ve not destroyed it?”
    “It’s in the parlour, on the bracket,” he replied, marvelling. “Why?”
    She cried and laughed together, and bending over, kissed his cheek.
    “I only just thought of it,” she said, hysterically. “Why didn’t I think of it before? Why didn’t you think of it?”
    “Think of what?” he questioned.
    “The other two wishes,” she replied, rapidly. “We’ve only had one.”
    “Was not that enough?” he demanded, fiercely.
    “No,” she cried, triumphantly; “we’ll have one more. Go down and get it quickly, and wish our boy alive again.”
    The man sat up in bed and flung the bedclothes from his quaking limbs. “Good God, you are mad!” he cried, aghast.
    “Get it,” she panted; “get it quickly, and wish—Oh, my boy, my boy!”
    Her husband struck a match and lit the candle. “Get back to bed,” he said, unsteadily. “You don’t know what you are saying.”
    “We had the first wish granted,” said the old woman, feverishly; “why not the second?”
    “A coincidence,” stammered the old man.
    “Go and get it and wish,” cried his wife, quivering with excitement.
    The old man turned and regarded her, and his voice shook. “He has been dead ten days, and besides he—I would not tell you else, but—I could only recognize him by his clothing. If he was too terrible for you to see then, how now?”
    “Bring him back,” cried the old woman, and dragged him toward the door. “Do you think I fear the child I have nursed?”
    He went down in the darkness, and felt his way to the parlour, and then to the mantelpiece. The talisman was in its place, and a horrible fear that the unspoken wish might bring his mutilated son before him ere he could escape from the room seized upon him, and he caught his breath as he found that he had lost the direction of the door. His brow cold with sweat, he felt his way round the table, and groped along the wall until he found himself in the small passage with the unwholesome thing in his hand.
    Even his wife’s face seemed changed as he entered the room. It was white and expectant, and to his fears seemed to have an unnatural look upon it. He was afraid of her.
    “Wish!” she cried, in a strong voice.
    “It is foolish and wicked,” he faltered.
    “Wish!” repeated his wife.
    He raised his hand. “I wish my son alive again.”
    The talisman fell to the floor, and he regarded it fearfully. Then he sank trembling into a chair as the old woman, with burning eyes, walked to the window and raised the blind.
    He sat until he was chilled with the cold, glancing occasionally at the figure of the old woman peering through the window. The candle-end, which had burned below the rim of the china candlestick, was throwing pulsating shadows on the ceiling and walls, until, with a flicker larger than the rest, it expired. The old man, with an unspeakable sense of relief at the failure of the talisman, crept back to his bed, and a minute or two afterward the old woman came silently and apathetically beside him.
    Neither spoke, but lay silently listening to the ticking of the clock. A stair creaked, and a squeaky mouse scurried noisily through the wall. The darkness was oppressive, and after lying for some time screwing up his courage, he took the box of matches, and striking one, went downstairs for a candle.
    At the foot of the stairs the match went out, and he paused to strike another; and at the same moment a knock, so quiet and stealthy as to be scarcely audible, sounded on the front door.
    The matches fell from his hand and spilled in the passage. He stood motionless, his breath suspended until the knock was repeated. Then he turned and fled swiftly back to his room, and closed the door behind him. A third knock sounded through the house.
    “What’s that?” cried the old woman, starting up.
    “A rat,” said the old man in shaking tones—”a rat. It passed me on the stairs.”
    His wife sat up in bed listening. A loud knock resounded through the house.
    “It’s Herbert!” she screamed. “It’s Herbert!”
    She ran to the door, but her husband was before her, and catching her by the arm, held her tightly.
    “What are you going to do?” he whispered hoarsely.
    “It’s my boy; it’s Herbert!” she cried, struggling mechanically. “I forgot it was two miles away. What are you holding me for? Let go. I must open the door.”
    “For God’s sake don’t let it in,” cried the old man, trembling.
    “You’re afraid of your own son,” she cried, struggling. “Let me go. I’m coming, Herbert; I’m coming.”
    There was another knock, and another. The old woman with a sudden wrench broke free and ran from the room. Her husband followed to the landing, and called after her appealingly as she hurried downstairs. He heard the chain rattle back and the bottom bolt drawn slowly and stiffly from the socket. Then the old woman’s voice, strained and panting.
    “The bolt,” she cried, loudly. “Come down. I can’t reach it.”
    But her husband was on his hands and knees groping wildly on the floor in search of the paw. If he could only find it before the thing outside got in. A perfect fusillade of knocks reverberated through the house, and he heard the scraping of a chair as his wife put it down in the passage against the door. He heard the creaking of the bolt as it came slowly back, and at the same moment he found the monkey’s paw, and frantically breathed his third and last wish.
    The knocking ceased suddenly, although the echoes of it were still in the house. He heard the chair drawn back, and the door opened. A cold wind rushed up the staircase, and a long loud wail of disappointment and misery from his wife gave him courage to run down to her side, and then to the gate beyond. The street lamp flickering opposite shone on a quiet and deserted road.
    Title – The Monkey’s Paw
    Author – W.W. Jacobs
    Year – 1902
    Source – (https://www.gutenberg.org/files/12122/12122-h/12122-h.htm)
    SECTION – B : SCRIPT OF THE SKIT
    Scene I
    (Middle class cottage: fireplace, armchairs in one place, kitchen table and chairs another place, bedroom with bed and chair another.)

    Mr. White – Hark at the wind,
    Herbert – I’m listening… Check.
    Mr. White – I should hardly think that he’d come to-night.
    Herbert – Mate.
    Mr. White – That’s the worst of living so far out, Of all the beastly, slushy, out-of-the-way places to live in, this is the worst. Pathway’s a bog, and the road’s a torrent. I don’t know what people are thinking about. I suppose because only two houses in the road are let, they think it doesn’t matter.
    Mrs White – Never mind, dear (soothingly) perhaps you’ll win the next one.

    (KNOCK KNOCK)

    Herbert – There he is!
    Mr White – Twenty-one years back, when he went away, he was a slip of a youth in the warehouse. Now look at him.

    Mrs White – He don’t look to have taken much harm!
    Mr white – “I’d like to go to India myself,” “just to look round a bit, you know.”
    Morris- “Better where you are.”
    Mr White- “I should like to see those old temples and fakirs and jugglers,” “What was that you started telling me the other day about a monkey’s paw or something, Morris?”

    Morris- Nothing, ” nothing worth hearing.”
    Mrs white- Monkey’s paw ?
    Morrris- “Well, it’s just a bit of what you might call magic, perhaps,”

    Morris- to look at, it’s just an ordinary little paw, dried to a mummy.

    Mr white- “And what is there special about it?”
    Morris- “It had a spell put on it by an old fakir,” “a very holy man. He wanted to show that fate ruled people’s lives, and that those who interfered with it did so to their sorrow. He put a spell on it so that three separate men could each have three wishes from it.”

    Herbert- “Well, why don’t you have three, sir?”
    Morris- I have
    Mrs white- “And did you really have the three wishes granted?”
    Morris – I did
    Mrs white- “And has anybody else wished?”

    Morris – “The first man had his three wishes. Yes,” “I don’t know what the first two were, but the third was for death. That’s how I got the paw.”

    Mr white- “If you’ve had your three wishes, it’s no good to you now, then, Morris. What do you keep it for?”
    Morris – “I did have some idea of selling it, but I don’t think I will. It has caused enough mischief already. Besides, people won’t buy. They think it’s a fairy tale; some of them, and those who do think anything of it want to try it first and pay me afterward.”
    Mr white- “If you could have another three wishes,”would you have them?”
    Morris – I don’t know, I don’t know.
    (He took the paw, and dangling it between his forefinger and thumb, suddenly threw it upon the fire. White, with a slight cry, stooped down and snatched it off.)
    Morris- Better let it burn.
    Mr white- “If you don’t want it, Morris,give it to me.”
    Morris-  “I threw it on the fire. If you keep it, don’t blame me for what happens. Pitch it on the fire again like a sensible man.”
    Mr white- How do you do it?
    Morris- “Hold it up in your right hand and wish aloud but I warn you of the consequences.”
    Mrs white- Sounds like the Arabian Nights,”Don’t you think you might wish for four pairs of hands for me?”
    Morris- “If you must wish, “wish for something sensible.”
    Herbert- “If the tale about the monkey’s paw is not more truthful than those he has been telling us, “we shall not make much out of it.”
    Mrs white- “Did you give him anything for it ?
    Mr white- “A trifle,” He didn’t want it, but I made him take it. And he pressed me again to throw it away.”
    Herbert- Likely,”. “Why, we’re going to be rich, and famous and happy. Wish to be an emperor!
    Mr white- “I don’t know what to wish for, and that’s a fact,” It seems to me I’ve got all I want.”
    Herbert- If you only cleared the house, you’d be quite happy, wouldn’t you? “Well, wish for two hundred pounds, then; that ‘ll just do it.”
    Mr white – “I wish for two hundred pounds,”
    (A fine crash from the piano greeted the words, interrupted by a shuddering cry from the old man. His wife and son ran toward him.)
    Mr white- “As I wished, it twisted in my hand like a snake.”
    Herbert – “Well, I don’t see the money, (he picked it up and placed it on the table,) “and I bet I never shall.”
    Mr White- (He shook his head). “Never mind, though; there’s no harm done, but it gave me a shock all the same.”
    Herbert – “I expect you’ll find the cash tied up in a big bag in the middle of your bed,”
    (He sat alone in the darkness, gazing at the dying fire, and seeing faces in it. The last face was so horrible and so simian that he gazed at it in amazement. It got so vivid that, with a little uneasy laugh, he felt on the table for a glass containing a little water to throw over it. His hand grasped the monkey’s paw, and with a little shiver he wiped his hand on his coat and went up to bed.)
    Scene II
    (In the brightness of the wintry sun next morning as it streamed over the breakfast table he laughed at his fears. There was an air of prosaic wholesomeness about the room which it had lacked on the previous night, and the dirty, shrivelled little paw was pitched on the sideboard with a carelessness which betokened no great belief in its virtues.)
    Mrs White- “I suppose all old soldiers are the same,”The idea of our listening to such nonsense! How could wishes be granted in these days? And if they could, how could two hundred pounds hurt you?”
    Herbert- “Might drop on his head from the sky,”
    Mr white- “Morris said the things happened as naturally as a coincidence.”
    Herbert- “Well, don’t break into the money before I come back.”
    Mrs white- “Herbert will have some more of his funny remarks, I expect, when he comes home,”
    Mr White – “I dare say,” ( pouring himself out some beer) “but for all that, the thing moved in my hand; that I’ll swear to.”
    Mrs White- You thought it did
    Mr white- I say it did,”There was no thought about it.
    (His wife made no reply. She was watching the mysterious movements of a man outside, who, peering in an undecided fashion at the house, appeared to be trying to make up his mind to enter.)
    (She brought the stranger, who seemed ill at ease, into the room.  but he was at first strangely silent.)
    Visitor- “I—was asked to call,” (stooped and picked a piece of cotton from his trousers.) “I come from ‘Maw and Meggins.’
    Mrs White- “Is anything the matter?”Has anything happened to Herbert? What is it? What is it?”
    Mr White- Sit down, and don’t jump to conclusions. You’ve not brought bad news, I’m sure, sir;” and he eyed the other wistfully.
    Visitor – “I’m sorry—”
    Mrs White- “Is he hurt?”
    Visitor – “Badly hurt, (quietly), “but he is not in any pain.”
    Mrs White- “Oh, thank God!”
    Visitor- “He was caught in the machinery,” 
    Mr white- “Caught in the machinery,”  (He sat staring blankly out at the window,)
    Mr white- “He was the only one left to us,” (turning gently to the visitor.) “It is hard.”
    Visitor-  “The firm wished me to convey their sincere sympathy with you in your great loss,” “I beg that you will understand I am only their servant and merely obeying orders.”
    Mr White- “I was to say that ‘Maw and Meggins’ disclaim all responsibility,” 
    Visitor- “They admit no liability at all, but in consideration of your son’s services, they wish to present you with a certain sum as compensation.”
    MR white- “How much?”
    Visitor- Two hundred pounds,”
    Scene III
    (In the huge new cemetery, some two miles distant, the old people buried their dead son, and came back to a house steeped in shadow and silence. It was all over so quickly that at first they could hardly realize it, and remained in a state of expectation as though of something else to happen —something else which was to lighten this load, too heavy for old hearts to bear.
    But the days passed, and expectation gave place to resignation—the hopeless resignation of the old, sometimes miscalled, apathy. Sometimes they hardly exchanged a word, for now they had nothing to talk about, and their days were too long to live.
    It was about a week after that the old man, waking suddenly in the night, stretched out his hand and found himself alone. The room was in darkness, and the sound of subdued weeping came from the window. He raised himself in bed and listened.)
    Mr white- “Come back,You will be cold.”
    Mrs White- “It is colder for my son,”The paw! “The monkey’s paw.”
    Mr white- “Where? Where is it? What’s the matter?”
    Mrs white- “I want it,” (said, quietly.) “You’ve not destroyed it, right?”
    Mr white- “It’s in the parlour, on the bracket,” (replied, marveling). “Why?”
    Mrs white- “I just thought of it,”Why didn’t I think of it before? Why didn’t you think of it?”
    Mr White- “Think of what?”
    Mrs white- “The other two wishes,”We’ve only had one.”
    Mr White- “Was not that enough?”
    Mrs white- No,” (cried, triumphantly) “we’ll have one more. Go down and get it quickly, and wish our boy alive again.”
    Mr white- “Get back to bed,” (said, unsteadily) “You don’t know what you are saying.”
    Mrs white- “Go and get it and wish,” Bring him back,” (cried the old woman) “Do you think I fear the child I have nursed?”
    (He went down in the darkness, and felt his way to the parlour, and then to the mantelpiece. The talisman was in its place, and a horrible fear that the unspoken wish might bring his mutilated son before him. He caught his breath as he found that he had lost the direction of the door. His brow cold with sweat, he felt his way round the table, and groped along the wall until he found himself in the small passage with the unwholesome thing in his hand.)
    Mrs white- “Wish!” 
    Mr White- “It is foolish and wicked,”
    Mrs white- “Wish!” 
    Mr white –  “I wish my son alive again.” (raise his hand)
    (The talisman fell to the floor, and he regarded it fearfully. Then he sank trembling into a chair as the old woman, with burning eyes, walked to the window and raised the blind.)
    (He sat until he was chilled with the cold, glancing occasionally at the old woman peering through the window. The candle-end, which had burned below the rim of the china candlestick, was throwing pulsating shadows on the ceiling and walls, until, with a flicker larger than the rest, it expired. The old man, with an unspeakable sense of relief at the failure of the talisman, crept back to his bed, and a minute or two afterward the old woman came silently and apathetically beside him.)
    (Neither spoke, but lay silently listening to the ticking of the clock. A stair creaked, and a squeaky mouse scurried noisily through the wall. The darkness was oppressive, and after lying for some time screwing up his courage, he took the box of matches, and striking one, went downstairs for a candle.)
    (At the foot of the stairs the match went out, and he paused to strike another; and at the same moment a knock, so quiet and stealthy as to be scarcely audible, sounded on the front door.)
    (The matches fell from his hand and spilled in the passage. He stood motionless, his breath suspended until the knock was repeated. Then he turned and fled swiftly back to his room, and closed the door behind him. A third knock sounded through the house.)
    Mrs white- “What’s that?”
    Mr white- “A rat,, a rat. It passed me on the stairs.”
    Mrs white- “It’s Herbert!” (she screamed). “It’s Herbert!”
    Mr white- What are you going to do?”
    Mrs white- You’re afraid of your own son,” ( cried, struggling). “Let me go.”
    (But her husband was on his hands and knees groping wildly on the floor in search of the paw. If he could only find it before the thing outside got in. The knocks reverberated through the house, and he heard the scraping of a chair as his wife put it down in the passage against the door. He heard the creaking of the bolt as it came slowly back, and at the same moment he found the monkey’s paw, and frantically breathed his third and last wish.
    The knocking ceased suddenly, although the echoes of it were still in the house. He heard the chair drawn back, and the door opened. A cold wind rushed up the staircase, and a long loud wail of disappointment from his wife gave him courage to run down to her side, and then to the gate beyond. The street lamp flickering opposite shone on a quiet and deserted road.)

  8. Nirma University
    Institute Of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment – The Verger

    Name: Varun Amin
    Roll No.-147159
    Class – SYBBA
    Date- 21/03/2016

    Character Analysis:

    In total there are many characters like The Verger, Wife of the Verger, Vicar, Church Wardens, and Banker
    Out of the above there are Two major characters i.e.: The Verger and Vicar.

    Major Characters:

    Albert Edward:
    Albert Edward as a very good verger and just because he can’t read or write they(Vicar)dismiss him. When he could make this job without this capacity, why should they change the verger?
    Albert Edward is very lucky, because if he couldn’t read or write, he couldn’t have been long at school and so it was a bit of luck, that he could make his shops run, but he has probably a certain talent.
    Albert is a very calm person, not stupid, even if he can’t write and read.

    The Vicar:
    The Vicar wasn’t right with Albert Edward and so he did right to left his job. But on the other side, it would have been an opportunity for him to learn writing and reading.
    The vicar works in a fashionable church. He wants to make it more fashionable, but he didn’t see the spiritual sight of it. It’s not important for him. He is frightened of a scandal, but Albert is a good verger.
    He was suborn, inflexible and too much practical.

    Minor Characters:

    Church Wardens:
    They were quiet scared of the Vicar and were not ready to oppose him at any cost. This proves that they lacked the capacity to take their own decisions, timid, shy and introvert.

    Banker:
    Banker was a practical man and was very efficient and professional towards his work as he tried is best to convince Albert to invest his money in stocks.

    Albert’s Wife:
    She was a scholar, supportive and loyal towards Albert. She even worked as a business partner for him and helped Albert expand his business.

    Significance of the Title:

    As the story revolves around Albert Edward Forman who was the Verger in St. Peter’s Neville
    Recently the vicar had died and a new one had been appointed
    New vicar fired Foreman from his job as he can not read and write.
    He does not want to be servant again , because now he has been his own master . He wants a cigarette but cannot found a shop anywhere.
    The next day he opens a little shop and set up a business as a tobacconist and newsagent.
    Albert Edward did very well. With the time he opens more shops and becomes richer.
    One day the banker told him, that he should invest all his money. The only thing he has to do is to sign the transfers, but because he cannot read that becomes a problem.
    The banker is very surprised to see that this successful man cannot read or write. He is wondering what he would now been , if he could read and write . Albert Edward answered that he would be a verger.
    Hence, the Verger is the most appropriate title

    Management and Moral Lessons:

    Moral Lessons:

    I think the moral of the story is to do what you are good at regardless of what other people may think. That is a pretty simple interpretation, but definitely a valid one. Albert Edward is faced again and again with jobs that he is willing and able to accomplish, but for which the people around him believe he is not suited. Whether or not they think he is capable of being the verger, or the businessman, does not affect the fact that he has already accomplished these things. 

I also agree with the interpretation the other writers have presented: “intelligence” comes in different forms, but each is equally valuable. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Beautiful and Damned, has this quote that I think fits quite well with the moral of “The Verger”:

    What feeble thing intelligence is, with its short steps, it’s wavering, it’s pacing back and forth, their disastrous retreat! Intelligence is a mere instrument of circumstances. … Intelligence is little more than a short foot-rule by which we measure the infinite achievements of Circumstances.

    I think that the message of this story is about the contrast between the actual worth and value of something and the perception of that worth. There are several things of value discussed in this story, either explicitly or implicitly stated: the position of being the church verger, the ability to read, the amount of money generated by Albert Edward’s new shop and Albert Edward himself. 

To the vicar and the churchwardens, because Albert Edward doesn’t know how to read, he is less valuable as a verger, ignoring the fact that his tasks (which he has done for sixteen years) don’t require the ability to read. They admit as much when they say that the sole reason for dismissing him is to avoid the potential embarrassment that could result if it is discovered by a parishioner that he cannot read, not because he cannot do his job. 

    Management Lessons:

    Opportunity:
    Before starting any business do the marker analysis to find the right opportunity to invest.
    For E.g.: Albert was searching for a tobacco shop but he could not get one, so he found some opportunity in this business and he opened a tobacco shop.

    Risk Aversion:
    In any business it is on the discretion of the businessman whether he wants to take risk or not.
    In this story Albert was not ready to take risk by investing in the stocks as he was illiterate and can not read the terms and conditions of investing.

    Expanding Business:
    One must not leave the opportunity of expansion in business.
    As Albert expanded is business i.e.: He was motivated with his initial success with his first tobacco shop which encouraged him to establish himself the best tobacconist of the city with a dozen of tobacco shops in the span of a decade.

    Centralization of Power:
    In business it is very necessary for the owner to have a complete watch over his business, he must have a power in his own hands if he is involved in a proprietorship business.
    He must have the complete authority in his hands.

  9. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment

    Name: Tanvi Ubana
    Roll No: 147156
    Class: SYBBA
    Date: 21-03-16

    THE REPUBLIC OF ANIMAL FARM
    BY: GEORGE ORWELL

    SUMMARY
    After celebrating their so-called victory against Frederick, the animals began building a new windmill wearily and weakly. Their efforts are again led by Boxer who, despite his split hoof, insists on working harder and getting the windmill started before he retires. Though no animal has yet retired on Animal Farm, it had previously been agreed that all horses could do so at the age of twelve. Boxer now nears this age and he looks forward to a comfortable life in the pasture as a reward for his immense labour.
    Food supplies continue to diminish, except for the pigs and the dogs and Squealer explains that they actually have more food and better lives than they have ever known. Meanwhile, the pigs continued to grow fatter. The four sows littered thirty-one piglets. Napoleon, the father of all of them, orders a schoolroom to be built for their education. Napoleon begins ordering events called Spontaneous Demonstration, at which the animals march around the farm, listen to speeches, and exult in the glory of Animal Farm. When other animals complain, the sheep, who love these Spontaneous Demonstrations, drown them out with chants of “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Later, Animal Farm is eventually proclaimed a Republic and Napoleon is elected as the President.
    After his wounds had healed, Boxer worked as hard as he could at building the windmill — until the day he collapsed because of a lung ailment. After he was helped back to his stall, Squealer informs them that Napoleon has sent for the doctor at Willingdon to treat him. When the van arrived to take Boxer to the hospital, Benjamin read its side and learns that Boxer was actually being taken to a slaughterhouse. Clover screamed to Boxer to escape, but the old horse was too weak to kick his way out of the van, which drove away. Boxer was never seen again. To placate the animals, Squealer told them that Boxer was not taken to a horse slaughterer but that the doctor had bought the slaughterer’s truck and had not yet repainted the words on its side. The animals were relieved when they heard this. The chapter ends with a grocer’s van delivering a crate of whisky to the pigs, who drank it all and did not arise until after noon the following day.

    ANALYSIS
    Boxer’s death in this chapter marks him as the most pathetic of Orwell’s creations. Completely brainwashed by Napoleon, he lives and dies for the good of the farm — a farm whose leader sells him to a horse slaughterer the moment he becomes unfit for work. Even when stricken and unable to move, Boxer’s dream of retiring with Benjamin and learning “the remaining twenty-two letters of the alphabet” is as far-flung as Snowball’s utopia and Moses’ Sugarcandy Mountain.
    The scene in which Boxer is taken to his death is notable for its depiction of a powerless and innocent figure caught in the gears of unforgiving tyranny. Although Boxer tries to kick his way out of the van, his previously incredible strength has been — through days of mindless hard work — reduced to nothing. The process of Squealer’s announcements to the animals about their shortages of food displays his manipulation of language.”For the time being, it had been found necessary to make a readjustment of rations.” His use of “readjustment” instead of “reduction” is a subtle attempt to quell the animals’ complaints as “reduction” is a word implying less of something, but “readjustment” implies a shifting of what is already there.
    This manipulation of language is again found when Animal Farm is proclaimed a Republic, with Napoleon its “elected” President. The word “Republic” suggests a land of self-government whose citizens participate in the political process, as the word “President” suggests one who is of the citizenry but who has been appointed by them to preside over — not control — their government. However the use of word “Republic” is satirical in itself.
    Similarly, the animals are “glad to believe” Squealer’s obvious lies about Boxer’s final moments in which he supposedly praised both Animal Farm and Napoleon. The reason is that they are afraid to do so — afraid of Napoleon and his dogs. As Orwell ironically explained: “The animals were enormously relieved to hear this and when Squealer went on to give further graphic details of Boxer’s death-bed, the admirable care he had received and the expensive medicines for which Napoleon had paid without a thought to the cost, their last doubts disappeared and the sorrow that they felt for their comrade’s death was tempered by the thought that at least he died happy.”
    The return of Moses is, like the destruction of the first windmill, used to the pigs’ advantage. The reason why the pigs allowed Moses to remain on the farm is that the Moses’ tales of Sugarcandy Mountain figuratively drug the animals and keep them docile – If life now is awful, at least (so Moses’ tales imply) it will not always be such. Therefore the animals continue working, labouring under the hope that one day, Moses’ stories will come true.
    Napoleon’s fathering of the thirty one piglets suggests how saturated with his image and presence the farm has become. In a biological sense, Napoleon is now creating the very population he means to control. His decision to build a schoolhouse for the pigs is reminiscent of such authoritarian organizations as the “Hitler Youth”, and his numerous commands favouring the pigs recalls “Hitler’s thoughts.”
    Also notable in this chapter is the great amount of ceremony that Napoleon institutes throughout the farm: The increased amount of songs, speeches, and demonstrations keep the animals’ brains busy enough not to think about their own wretchedness. The wreath, Napoleon orders to be made for Boxer’s grave, is a clever display of Napoleon to show his fake sympathy towards Boxer’s death and to become great in the eyes of other animals. The fact that the pigs get drunk on the night of the supposed solemn day of Boxer’s memorial banquet betrays their complete lack of sympathy for the devoted but ignorant horse. Their drunkenness also makes them more like Jones, their former oppressor.

    REFERNCE
    http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/a/animal-farm/summary-and-analysis/chapter-9

  10. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment

    Name: SHREYAS AGARWAL
    Roll No.-147148
    Class – SYBBA
    Date- 21/03/2016

    ANIMAL FARM
    CHAPTER 3 SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS

    SUMMARY
    Despite the initial difficulties inherent in using farming tools designed for humans, the animals cooperate to finish the harvest, and do so in less time than it had taken Jones and his men to do the same. Boxer distinguishes himself as a strong, tireless worker, admired by all the animals. The pigs become the supervisors and directors of the animal workers. On Sundays, the animals meet in the big barn to listen to Snowball and Napoleon debating over a number of topics on which they never seem to agree. Snowball forms a number of Animal Committees, all of which fail. However, he does prove successful at bringing a degree of literacy to the animals, who learn to read according to their varied intelligences. To help the animals understand the general precepts of Animalism, Snowball reduces the Seven Commandments to a single slogan: “Four legs good, two legs bad.” Napoleon, meanwhile, focuses his energy on educating the youth and takes the infant pups of Jessie and Bluebell away from their mothers, presumably for educational purposes.
    The animals learn that the cows’ milk and wind fallen apples are mixed every day into the pigs’ mash. When the animals object, Squealer explains that the pigs need the milk and apples to sustain themselves as they work for the benefit of all the other animals.

    ANALYSIS
    While the successful harvest seems to signal the overall triumph of the rebellion, Orwell hints in numerous ways that the very ideals that the rebels used as their rallying cry are being betrayed by the pigs. The fact that they do not do any physical work but instead stand behind the horses shouting commands suggests their new positions as masters — and as creatures very much like the humans they presumably wanted to overthrow.
    When Squealer explains to the animals why the pigs have been getting all the milk and apples, he reveals his rhetorical skill and ability to “skip from side to side” to convince the animals that the pigs’ greed is actually a great sacrifice: Appealing to science (which presumably has proven that apples and milk are “absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig”) and lying about pigs disliking the very food they are hoarding, Squealer manages a great public-relations stunt by portraying the pigs as near-martyrs who only think of others and never themselves. “It is for your sake that we drink that milk and eat those apples,” Squealer explains, and his dazzling pseudo-logic persuades the murmuring animals that the pigs are, in fact, selfless.
    Squealer’s rhetorical question, “Surely there is no one among you who wants to see Jones back?” is the first of many times when Squealer will invoke the name of Jones to convince the animals that — despite any discontentment they may feel — their present lives are greatly preferable to the ones they led under their old master. Orwell’s tone when describing the animals’ reaction to Squealer (“The importance of keeping the pigs in good health was all too obvious”) is markedly ironic and again signals to the reader that the pigs are slowly changing into a new form of their old oppressors.
    The flag created by Snowball is, like the Seven Commandments and the preserving of Jones’ house as a museum, an attempt by the animals to create a greater sense of solidarity and emphasize their victory. Snowball’s Animal Committees fail, however, because in them he attempts to radically transform the animals’ very natures. Trying to create a “Clean Tails League” for the cows is as doomed to fail as trying to tame the wild animals in a “Wild Comrade’s Re-education Committee.” Snowball’s aims may be noble and high-minded, but he is naive in thinking that he can alter the very nature of the animals’ personalities. Thus, Snowball is marked as the intellectual theoretician of the rebellion — a characteristic that will be heightened later when he begins planning the construction of the windmill. Like old Major, Snowball has noble yet naive assumptions about the purity of animals’ natures.
    Unlike Snowball, Napoleon is a pig of action who cares little for committees. His assumption that the education of the young is the most important duty of the animal leaders may sound like one of Snowball’s altruistic ideas — but he only says this to excuse his seizure of the new pups that he will raise to be the vicious guard dogs he uses to terrorize the farm in later chapters.
    Boxer, is portrayed as a simple-minded but dedicated worker. He cannot learn any more than four letters of the alphabet, but what he lacks in intelligence he more than makes up for in devotion to the farm. His new motto “I will work harder” and request to be called to the field half an hour before anyone else marks him as exactly the kind of animal that the pigs feel confident in controlling. When there is no thought, there can only be blind acceptance. (Like Boxer, the sheep are content with repeating a motto instead of engaging in any real thought. Their repetition of “Four legs good, two legs bad” continues throughout the novel, usually when Napoleon needs them to quiet any dissention.)
    Mollie’s vanity is stressed in her reluctance to work during the harvest — she cannot devote herself to any cause other than her own ego. Thus, when she is taught to read, she refuses to learn any letters except the ones that spell her name. Unlike Snowball (and his intellectual fancies) or Napoleon (and his ruthlessness), Mollie willingly abstains from any part in the political process.
    Old Benjamin’s character is likewise developed in this chapter. Orwell points out that Benjamin “never changed” and that, when asked about the rebellion, only remarks, “Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey.” The other animals find this reply a “cryptic” one, but the reader understands Benjamin’s point: He is wary of becoming too enthusiastic about the rebellion, since he knows that any new government can succumb to the temptation to abuse its power. Later, when the animals learn to read, Benjamin never does, since he finds “nothing worth reading.” His cynicism is out-of-place with the patriotism felt by the other animals, but he cannot be convinced that the rebellion is a wholly noble cause after witnessing the actions of the pigs.

    GLOSSARY

    CUTTER: a small, light sleigh, usually drawn by one horse.
    WHELPED: gave birth to: said of some animals; here, meaning a litter of puppies was born.
    WINDFALLS: apples blown down by the wind from trees.

  11. Litrary analysis of “the dying detective ”
    About the Author
    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician, most noted for his fictional stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction.
    He is also known for writing the fictional adventures of a second character he invented, Professor Challenger, and for popularising the mystery of the Mary Celeste. He was a prolific writer whose other works include fantasy and science fiction stories, plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction and historical novels.
    Doyle’s stage works include ‘Waterloo’, the reminiscences of an English veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, the character of Gregory Brewster being written for Henry Irving; ‘The House of Temperley’, the plot of which reflects his abiding interest of boxing; ‘The Speckled Band’, after the short story of that name; and the 1893 collaboration with J.M. Barrie on the libretto of ‘Jane Annie’.

    Plot Construction/Summary
    Dr. Watson is called to 221B Baker Street to tend Holmes, who is apparently dying of a rare Asian disease contracted while he was on a case at Rotherhithe. Watson is shocked, having heard nothing about his friend’s illness. Mrs. Hudson says that he has neither eaten nor drunk anything in three days.
    Upon arriving, Watson finds Holmes in his bed looking very ill and gaunt indeed, and Holmes proceeds to make several odd demands of Watson. He is not to come near Holmes, for the illness is highly contagious. He will seek no help save from the man whom Holmes names. He will wait until six o’clock before Holmes names him. When Watson objects and tries to leave for help, Holmes musters enough strength to leap out of bed, and lock the door, taking the key. So, Watson is forced to wait. Holmes seems delirious at times.
    Watson examines several objects in Holmes’s room while he waits. Holmes has a fit when Watson touches one item, a little black and white ivory box with a sliding lid. Holmes orders him to put it down, explaining that he does not like his things touched.
    At six o’clock, Holmes tells Watson to turn the gaslight on, but only half-full. He then tells him to fetch Mr. Culverton Smith of 13 Lower Burke Street. Oddly, he also tells Watson to be sure that he and Smith return to Baker Street separately. Smith is not a doctor, but is supposedly an expert on the illness that ails Holmes. Also, Holmes explains that Smith does not particularly like him, for Holmes once cast the suspicion for Smith’s nephew’s murder on him.
    Outside Holmes’s door, Watson meets Inspector Morton. Upon hearing of Holmes’s illness, the inspector’s expression somewhat suggests exultation to Watson.
    Watson goes to the address, and at first Smith refuses to see him. Watson forces his way in and once he makes it clear to an angry Culverton Smith that Sherlock Holmes is dying and wants to see him, his attitude changes drastically. He seems quite concerned, although for a moment, it seems to Watson that he is pleased. Smith agrees to come, and so Watson excuses himself by saying that he has another appointment. He arrives back at Baker Street before Smith gets there.
    Holmes is pleased to hear that Smith is coming, and orders Watson to hide behind a decorative screen next to the bed. He does so, and presently, Culverton Smith arrives. His bedside manner seems more taunting than soothing.
    Believing that they are alone, Smith is quite frank, and it soon emerges, to the hiding Watson’s horror, that Holmes has been sickened by the same illness that killed Smith’s nephew Victor. Believing that Holmes is at death’s door and will never get to repeat what he hears, Smith is also frank enough to admit that he murdered his nephew with this disease, which he had been studying. He sees the little ivory box, which Smith sent by post, and which contains a sharp spring infected with the illness. He pockets it, removing the evidence of his crime. He then resolves to stay there and watch Holmes die.
    Holmes asks him to turn the gas up full, which he does. He also asks for a match and a cigarette. No sooner have these requests been fulfilled than Inspector Morton comes in — the gaslight was the signal to move in, it turns out. Holmes tells him to arrest Culverton Smith for his nephew’s murder. Smith, still as arrogant as ever, points out that his word is as good as Holmes’s in court, but then, of course, Watson emerges from behind the screen to present himself as a witness to the conversation.
    Holmes is not really dying, of course. This has all been a ruse to get Culverton Smith to confess to his nephew’s murder. Holmes was not infected by the little box; he has enough enemies to know that he must always examine his mail carefully before he opens it. Starving himself for three days, and a little vaseline, belladonna, rouge, and beeswax made him a convincing malingerer and the claim of the “disease’s” infectious nature was to keep Watson from examining him and discovering the ruse.

    Holmes: Shrewd and clever, Sherlock Holmes was a perfect detective as he was able to stage a ruse that only he and Inspector Morton knew about. He was even bale to have a witness in the room to prove his point.
    Watson: A loyal friend who would do anything for his friend, Dr. Watson is also shown as a committed doctor who would go to any lengths trying to do his job
    Culverton Smith: A cocky, taunting and proud man, Culverton Smith has been showcased as the perfect villain for the story. He feels that he is invincible and can’t be touched as Holmes himself is about to die.

    As a literary form
    ‘The Dying Detective’ is a short story.
    Management Lessons
    • Never put all your cards on the table.
    • It’s important to stage some rues or speak some harmless lies that in order to get what you want.
    • Long term thinking is necessary if one really wants tangible results.
    • There is no substitute for hard work and commitment.

  12. Name: Shreya Patni

    Roll No.: 147147

    Batch: SYBBA

    Submission Date: 1 March 2016

    ADVENTURES OF THE DYING DETECTIVE

    The “Adventures of the Dying Detective” is one of the 56 short stories of Sherlock Holmes written by

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Together with seven other stories, it is collected as His Last Bow.

    Plot Construction : As his other stories, this story is also set up in 221B Baker Street where Sherlock

    lives. The plot of the story revolves around Sherlock and his illness. The plot is constructed in such a way

    to hide the hidden motive of solving a murder mystery by Holmes, which is concealed behind the illness

    of Holmes. Sherlock in order to arrest Mr Culverton Smith sets up a whole plan of his death by an Asian

    disease which he doesn’t even share with Watson. Starving himself for three days and a

    little Vaseline, belladonna, rouge and beeswax made him a convincing malingerer and the claim of the

    “disease’s” infectious nature was to keep Watson from examining him and discovering the ruse.

     Exposition Statement: The story begins with a very interesting description of Sherlock Holmes

    as a tenant given by Watson. The initial paragraph of the story describes Holmes and his eccentric

    nature as a tenant and as a person. He used to indulge in strange activities at strange hours of the

    day and night which disturbed his landlady, Mrs Hudson a lot. This very strange behaviour of

    Holmes made him the worst tenant in London according to Watson.

     Rising Action: As it is a crime story, there are many points of rising action in the story. The first

    instance being, initially when Mrs Hudson visits Watson to brief him about the illness of Holmes.

    This creates a point of rising action as it generates an environment of suspense and as to what will

    happen next.

    In another scene, when Watson approaches the small black and white ivory box kept at the shelf

    of Holmes’ room, Sherlock gives a dreadful cry and asks Watson to put it down. It created an

    environment of curiosity and suspension and gives a hint of rising action which would be related

    to that box.

    In the climax part of the story also when Smith confesses that he has committed the murder of his

    nephew, it gave a signal of rising action as it indicated that some kind of action between Holmes

    and Smith will take place.

     Falling Action: The storyline somewhat comes to a downfall when Watson goes at Smith’s house

    to request him to cure Holmes of his disease. In the entire scene there is a fall in action as Watson

    tells Smith about Sherlock’s illness and the urgency to cure him as soon as possible.

    There are not much other instances of falling action in the story.

     Climax: The climax of the story was quite interesting and predictable also. It was plotted in an

    interesting manner where the whole suspense of the story is revealed. The climax consists of a

    sudden action where Inspector Morton comes in Holmes’ room and arrests Mr Culverton for the

    murder of his own nephew, Victor Savage. In the meantime Holmes also springs up from his bed

    completely in a good condition and later on Holmes reveals the whole truth of his planning of

    arresting Culverton, to Watson. In the end, Holmes also apologises to Watson for lying and

    manipulating him and also for doubting his medical experience. But the turn of events before the

    climax somewhere gives a hint to the ending of the story which makes the climax slightly

    predictable for the readers.

    Narrative Technique : In all the stories of Sherlock Holmes, Dr Watson is the narrator who narrates the

    story from his point of view. This story is also narrated by Dr Watson; therefore in the first person it is

    narrated. The story is written in a simple language. The narration and language is understandable but in

    some parts there could be a little difficulty in understanding the language. Also, somewhere Watson’s

    point of view adds humour to the story, like in the beginning of the story where Watson describes Holmes

    as the worst tenant in London was quite humorous, which makes the story more interesting and appealing

    to readers.

    Also, the literary device of imagery is used in the story. The story is narrated in such a way that it

    continuously gives an image of a sick man, as in every scene of the story an ill, dying Sherlock is

    described. This continuously creates an image of a diseased Holmes as the reader reads through the story.

    This imagery helps in understanding the story in a better way and also helps in connecting the readers to

    the story.

    As a Short Story Form : This story is a good example of a short story. It consists of a limited number of

    characters and is based upon a single setting of events. It focuses on one incident and has a single plot, i.e.

    the illness of Holmes which is a set up for arresting Smith for the murder of his nephew, Victor Savage.

    As in every Sherlock story, the events are described with details which make them clear to the readers.

    But unlike every story of Sherlock Holmes, this story was less interesting as the role of Holmes as a crime

    detective solving the cases with his wit and intellect was very less because in the whole story he solved

    the case by just lying on the bed. Rather he solved the case by lying and manipulating Watson for his own

    cause. Despite these reasons, the story is quite interesting and a good example of a short story.

    Management Lessons :

     The most important is paying attention to details. Many a time not giving attention to minor things

    lead to a bigger problem, hence every manager should pay attention to each and every detail.

     In order to be successful and to carry out the operations properly, organisations and managers

    should keep some information confidential even form the members of their own organisations.

     One must not underestimate their opponents or competitors in any field. Mangers and

    organisations need to be aware of the plans and moves of their competitors to succeed in the long

    run.

  13. Nirma University
    Institute of Management
    English Literature
    Individual Assignment
    Name – Garima Jain
    Roll No. – 147115
    Class – SYBBA
    Date –18th February 2016

    Summary of ACT-2
    Act 2 begins in Belmont at Portia’s house with the Prince of Morocco, Portia, Nerissa, and others in attendance.
    Scene 1-
    The prince of Morocco arrives to attempt to win Portia’s hand in marriage. The prince asks Portia not to judge him by his dark complexion, assuring her that he is as valorous as any European man. The Prince says he’s very fierce, and lists off all the things he’s killed. Though the Prince says he’s willing to steal a baby bear from its mama bear (a very manly thing to do, apparently). Portia reminds the prince that her own tastes do not matter, since the process of picking chests, stipulated in her father’s will, makes the prince as worthy as any other suitor. With a lengthy proclamation of his own bravery and heroism, the prince asks Portia to lead him to the caskets, where he may venture his guess. Portia reveals what her father’s “imposition,” or condition, was, if a suitor decides to play the lottery of chests and chooses the wrong one, not only does he lose a chance at Portia, he must never talk of marriage to another woman again. Hearing this, the Prince insists on playing the lottery anyway, and Portia insists on having dinner.
    Scene 2-
    This scene takes us back to a street on Venice. Present are Launcelot, Shylock’s servant and then old Gobbo enters the scene.
    Launcelot Gobbo, a servant of Shylock’s, struggles to decide whether or not he should run away from his master. Part of him, which he calls “[t]he fiend . . . at mine elbow,” wants to leave, while his conscience reminds him of his honest nature and urges him to stay. Although Launcelot has no specific complaints, he seems troubled by the fact that his master is Jewish, or, as Launcelot puts it, “a kind of devil”. Just when Launcelot determines to run away, his father, Old Gobbo, enters. The old man is blind, and he asks how to get to Shylock’s house, where he hopes to find young Launcelot. Because his father does not recognize him, Launcelot decides to play a prank on him. Launcelot soon convinces his father of his identity. Launcelot confesses to his father that he is leaving Shylock’s employment in the hopes of serving Bassanio. Just then, Bassanio enters and he takes several moments to understand their bumbling proposition, but he accepts the offer. Bassanio then meets Gratiano, who asks to accompany him to Belmont, and agrees on the condition that Gratiano tame his characteristically wild behavior. Gratiano promises to be on his best behavior. He however, seeks permission from Bassanio to make mey at the dinne that Bassanio is giving to his friends that night.
    Scene 3-
    We are still in Venice, but have moved to Shylock’s house with Jessica and Launcelot. Jessica says goodbye to Launcelot as he leaves to begin employment with Bassanio. She tells him that his presence made life with her father more bearable. Jessica gives Launcelot a letter to carry to Bassanio’s friend Lorenzo. Jessica, left alone, confesses that although she feels guilty for being ashamed of her father, she is only his daughter by blood, and not by actions. Still, she hopes to escape her damning relationship to Shylock by marrying Lorenzo and converting to Christianity.
    Scene 4-
    This scene is still in Venice and back on a street Gratiano, Lorenzo, Salarino and Salanio walk onto the scene. They discuss the plan to unite Lorenzo with Jessica. Gratiano frets that they are not well prepared, but Lorenzo assures the men that they have enough time to gather the necessary disguises and torchbearers. As they talk, Launcelot enters bearing Jessica’s letter. Lorenzo recognizes the writing. Lorenzo bids Launcelot to return to Shylock’s house in order to assure Jessica, secretly, that Lorenzo will not let her down. Launcelot departs, and Lorenzo orders his friends to prepare for the night’s festivities. Salarino and Solanio leave, and Lorenzo relates to Gratiano that Jessica will escape from Shylock’s house by disguising herself as Lorenzo’s torchbearer. She would leave her father’s house with money and jewellery and they would marry soon after.
    Scene 5-
    This scene opens in front of Shylock’s house with Launcelot and Shylock.
    Shylock has been told that Launcelot is leaving to work for Bassanio. Shylock calls to Jessica and lets her know that he will be going to dinner at Bassanio’s and she must stay home and keep the house locked. As Launcelot leaves he quietly tells Jessica to watch out for Lorenzo this evening. Shylock leaves reminding Jessica again to lock the doors while he is gone.
    Scene 6-
    We are still on a street near Shylock’s house now with Gratiano and Salerio. Gratiano and Salerio are waiting for Lorenzo outside Shylock’s house. Lorenzo shows up a bit late and Jessica calls down asking who is there. Lorenzo proclaims his love for Jessica and she throws down a jewelry casket. She is embarrassed to be dressed as a boy but comes down. The casket is full of father’s gold and money. Though requested by Lorenzo, she feels shy to be the torchbearer in the masquerade but agrees to do so out of love. The need, however arises for Antonio enters just then and announces that Bassanio is to leave for Belmont immediately, due to favourable wind, which will help him sail to Belmont easily.
    Scene 7-
    This scene is back in Belmont, Portia and the Prince of Morocco enters a room in Portia’s house. Portia is asking the Prince to make his choice of caskets. He studies the inscriptions on each and how he will know if he chooses correctly. Portia lets him know that her picture will be in one of the caskets. The three inscriptions are: gold-“Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire;” silver “Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves;” and lead “Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.” The Prince decides to open the gold because all desire Portia and she is worth the gold. He finds a scroll in the golden casket that reminds him that “all that glitters is not gold.” Portia is relieved to be rid of the Prince.
    Morocco learns that ‘all that glitters is not gold’
    Scene 8-
    This scene takes place in Venice on a street and opens with Salerio and Salanio conversing about Shylock. They are making fun of Shylock’s discovery of the disappearance of his daughter Jessica. Shylock had been in the streets crying about his missing money and daughter. Salerio and Salanio become concerned that Shylocks anger will be taken out on Antonio and hope that his ships all come in safely.
    Scene 9-
    Back at Portia’s house in Belmont Nerissa with a Servitor as the Prince of Arragon, Portia, and their trains arrive.
    Portia explains the choice of the caskets to the Prince. He readily accepts the terms. He rejects the lead casket, because it is too ordinary. He rejects the golden casket, because he does not wish to choose what the multitude would have chosen as their first choice. Rejecting the two, he chooses the silver casket. Inside the silver casket is a picture of a fool’s head and a note calling him a fool. The prince leaves and Portia questions the wisdom of her suitors. A servant enters looking for Portia. He announces the arrival of a messenger for another suitor. Nerissa is hopeful that the Venetian suitor is Bassanio.

    Summary of ACT-3
    Scene 1-
    Salarino and Solanio discuss the rumors that yet another of Antonio’s ships has been wrecked. They are joined by Shylock, who accuses them of having helped Jessica escape. The two Venetians proudly take credit for their role in Jessica’s elopement. Shylock curses his daughter’s rebellion. Salarino then asks Shylock whether he can confirm the rumors of Antonio’s lost vessels. Shylock replies that Antonio will soon be bankrupt. Salarino wonders what the old man will do with a pound of flesh, to which Shylock chillingly replies that Antonio’s flesh will at least feed his revenge. A servant then enters to announce that Antonio would like to speak to Solanio and Salerio. As those two leave to see Antonio, Tubal, a Jewish friend of Shylock’s, enters with his own news. Tubal announces that he cannot find Jessica. Shylock rants against his daughter, and he wishes her dead as he bemoans his losses. He is especially embittered when Tubal reports that Jessica has taken a ring—given to Shylock in his bachelor days by a woman named Leah, presumably Jessica’s mother—and has traded that ring for a monkey. Shylock’s spirits brighten, however, when Tubal reports that Antonio’s ships have run into trouble and that Antonio’s creditors are certain Antonio is ruined.
    Scene 2-
    In Belmont, Portia begs Bassanio to delay choosing between the caskets for a day or two. If Bassanio chooses incorrectly, Portia reasons, she will lose his company. Bassanio insists that he make his choice now, to avoid prolonging the torment of living without Portia as his wife. Portia orders that music be played while her love makes his choice, and she compares Bassanio to the Greek hero and demigod Hercules. Like the suitors who have come before him, Bassanio carefully examines the three caskets and puzzles over their inscriptions. He rejects the gold casket, saying that “[t]he world is still deceived with ornament”, while the silver he deems a “pale and common drudge / ’Tween man and man”. After much debate, Bassanio picks the lead casket, which he opens to reveal Portia’s portrait, along with a poem congratulating him on his choice and confirming that he has won Portia’s hand.
    The happy couple promises one another love and devotion, and Portia gives Bassanio a ring that he must never part with, as his removal of it will signify the end of his love for her. Nerissa and Gratiano congratulate them and confess that they too have fallen in love with one another. They suggest a double wedding. Lorenzo and Jessica arrive in the midst of this rejoicing, along with Salarino, who gives a letter to Bassanio. In the letter, Antonio writes that all of his ships are lost, and that Shylock plans to collect his pound of flesh. The news provokes a fit of guilt in Bassanio, which in turn prompts Portia to offer to pay twenty times the sum. Jessica, however, worries that her father is more interested in revenge than in money. Bassanio reads out loud the letter from Antonio, who asks only for a brief reunion before he dies. Portia urges her husband to rush to his friend’s aid, and Bassanio leaves for Venice.
    Bassanio picks the lead casket, which he opens to reveal Portia’s portrait.

    Business Lessons:
    – Every business decision should not be taken with haste, proper analysis should be done. Because what seems to be good isn’t always good, just like what happened with Prince of Morocco, he decided to open the gold casket and finds a scroll in the golden casket that reminds him that “all that glitters is not gold.”
    – The news of Antonio’s ships being lost, provokes a fit of guilt in Bassanio, which in turn prompts him to rush to his friend’s aid, and he leaves for Venice. In business also one should never forget the good deeds of someone when he/she needs help, one should always have the courage to repay the person’s good deeds.
    – The belief of having revenge against someone should never prevail in one’s mind, as Shylock had for Antonio, one should never mix personal and professional life.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s